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  Substance Info: (and synonyms)
Citric acid

Background Info:

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Immune Reactions I Non-Immune Reactions I Occupational
Cross-reactions

Natural in citrus juice. Also occurs naturally in other fruits, e.g., apple, peaches and in coffee. Prepared commercially by molasses fermentation with Aspergillus niger.

 

 

Allergens:

No Allergens characterised


Immune Reactions:

After a 2-week period on an additive-free diet, 472 children were challenged with the eliminated additives. The food additives investigated were coloring agents, preservatives, citric acid, and flavoring agents. Carbonated "lemonade" containing the dissolved additives was used for the open challenge. Two doses were used: a low dose and a 10-fold higher dose. Gelatin capsules were used for a double-blind challenge. Of the 379 patients who entered the study, 44 were excluded and 335 were subjected to open challenge. A total of 23 children developed positive reactions after the open challenge. Sixteen of these patients accepted the double-blind challenge, and six showed a positive reaction to preservatives (atopic dermatitis, asthma, rhinitis), coloring agents (atopic dermatitis, asthma, urticaria, gastrointestinal symptoms), and citric acid (atopic dermatitis, gastrointestinal symptoms). The incidence of intolerance of food additives was 2% (6/335), as based on the double-blind challenge, and 7% (23/335), as based on the open challenge with lemonade. (Fuglsang 1994 ref.2343 5)

Fuglsang G, Madsen G, et al. Adverse reactions to food additives in children with atopic symptoms. Allergy 1994

 

This study sought to determine the prevalence of contact allergy to flavorings, preservatives, dental acrylates, medications, and metals in patients with oral disease. 331 patients with burning mouth syndrome, lichenoid tissue reaction, cheilitis, stomatitis, gingivitis, orofacial granulomatosis, perioral dermatitis, and recurrent aphthous stomatitis were tested with an 85-item oral antigen screening series. Positive patch test results were identified in 148 of the 331 patients; 90 patients had two or more positive reactions. Allergens with the highest positive reaction rates were potassium dicyanoaurate, nickel sulfate, and gold sodium thiosulfate. Of the 341 positive patch test reactions, 221 were clinically relevant. (Torgerson 2007 ref.20424 3) Allergen No. patients tested Reactions, % Positive Relevant Potassium dicyanoaurate 184 19.6 55.6 Nickel sulfate hexahydrate 320 12.5 52.5 Gold sodium thiosulfate 293 11.6 50.0 Fragrance mix 264 9.8 84.6 Palladium chloride 196 9.7 68.4 Balsam of Peru 264 7.2 78.9 Beryllium sulfate tetrahydrate 186 5.4 20.0 Cobalt chloride 307 5.2 56.3 2-Hydroxyethyl methacrylate 77 5.2 75.0 Gold chloride 186 4.3 62.5 DodecyI gallate 288 4.2 41.7 Mercury 190 4.2 87.5 Copper sulfate 79 3.8 33.3 Potassium dichromate 150 3.3 60.0 Benzoic acid 285 3.2 100.0 Cobalt sulfate 195 3.1 100.0 Mercury ammonium chloride 184 2.7 100.0 Octyl gallate 278 2.2 83.3 Amalgam 198 2.0 75.0 Mercuric chloride 198 2.0 100.0 Ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate 300 2.0 66.7 Benzoyl peroxide 289 1.7 20.0 Spearmint oil 297 1.7 80.8 Silver nitrate 182 1.6 66.7 Ammonium persulfate 284 1.4 25.0 Isoeugenol 291 1.4 100.0 Vanillin 296 1.4 75.0 Natural fragrance mix 167 1.2 100.0 Caine mix 87 1.1 100.0 Methyl methacrylate 287 1.0 66.7 Clove oil 296 1.0 100.0 Menthol 298 1.0 66.7 Colophony 266 0.8 100.0 Tixocortol pivalate 269 0.7 0.0 Ethyl acrylate 270 0.7 100.0 Dipentene (limonene) 288 0.7 50.0 PropyI gallate 290 0.7 100.0 Eugenol 297 0.7 100.0 Peppermint oil 297 0.7 100.0 Orange oil 298 0.7 50.0 Zinc chloride 180 0.6 0.0 Chromium chloride 182 0.5 100.0 Resorcinol 242 0.4 100.0 Sorbitan sesquioleate 286 0.3 0.0 Anethole 290 0.3 100.0 Benzyl alcohol 290 0.3 0.0 AmyI cinnamic aldehyde 298 0.3 100.0 Triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate 303 0.3 100.0 1,4-Butanediol dimethacrylate 51 0.0 0.0 1,6-Hexanediol diacrylate 55 0.0 0.0 2-Hydroxypropyl methacrylate 31 0.0 0.0 Aluminum powder 182 0.0 0.0 Ammonium tetra-chloroplatinate 183 0.0 0.0 Bisphenol-A-glycidylmethacrylate 302 0.0 0.0 Bisphenol-A-dimethacrylate 51 0.0 0.0 Budesonide 264 0.0 0.0 Cadmium chloride 182 0.0 0.0 Citric acid 289 0.0 0.0 Ethyl cyanoacrylate 38 0.0 0.0 Eucalyptus oil 298 0.0 0.0 Ferric chloride 184 0.0 0.0 Fluocinonide 24 0.0 0.0 Glutamic acid 289 0.0 0.0 Hydrocortisone 17-butyrate 142 0.0 0.0 Lemon oil 295 0.0 0.0 Lidocaine 71 0.0 0.0 Maganese chloride 183 0.0 0.0 Methyl salicylate 297 0.0 0.0 Molybdenum chloride 187 0.0 0.0 N,N-Dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate 49 0.0 0.0 Propionic acid 289 0.0 0.0 Rhodium 34 0.0 0.0 Sodium benzoate 288 0.0 0.0 Sorbic acid 291 0.0 0.0 Tartrazine yellow 291 0.0 0.0 Tetraethyleneglycol dimethacrylate 26 0.0 0.0 Tetra hydrofurfuryl methacrylate 55 0.0 0.0 Theobroma 291 0.0 0.0 Tin 198 0.0 0.0 Titanium alloy disk 151 0.0 0.0 Triamcinolone acetonide 269 0.0 0.0 Triclosan 257 0.0 0.0 Urethane dimethacrylate 49 0.0 0.0 Zinc 184 0.0 0.0 n-Butyl methacrylate 56 0.0 0.0

Torgerson RR, Davis MD, Bruce AJ, Farmer SA, Rogers RS. Contact allergy in oral disease. J Am Acad Dermatol 2007

 


Non-Immune Reactions:

Erosion of teeth in the long term. (Dodds 1997 ref.595 43) Local irritant. Dermatitis and GIT symptoms uncommon but possible. (Fuglsang 1993 ref.320 93) Severe eye and moderate skin irritant.

Reorganization process. Data in process of being reorganized. Editorial staff 2014

 


Occupational:

The manufacture of citric acid by fermentation of molasses with Aspergillus niger has previously been described as a cause of occupational asthma in a factory. (Seaton 1994 ref.11541 8)

Reorganization process. Data in process of being reorganized. Editorial staff 2014

 


Cross-Reactions:

No Records

Information supplied from an abridged section of:
Allergy Advisor - Zing Solutions
http://allergyadvisor.com/index.html

© zingsolutions.com 2014

Allergy Advisor  - Food Additive and Preservative Allergy and Intolerance Database


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