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  Substance Info: (and synonyms)
Rice

Background Info:

See also: Rice pollen

Common Names: Rice, Wild Rice, Rice flour;

All Rice grown in the United States and most of that cultivated in other countries is of the species Oryza sativa L. Some 20 to 25 species of Oryza are known. The species O. glaberrinia Steud. is cultivated in Africa.

Rice is an erect annual grass, up to 1.2m tall, producing tiny oblong grains (28,000 to 44,000 per kg, depending on the variety). Native to the tropics and subtropics of Southeast Asia (where it was cultivated since at least 5000 B.C.), Rice is now grown in many localities throughout the world with favorable climatic conditions. More than 90% of the world Rice production is in Asia, China and India being the largest producers.

Rice is a staple for almost half the world's population. The 8000-plus varieties of Rice are grown in two ways. Aquatic Rice (paddy-grown) is cultivated in flooded fields. The lower-yielding, lower-quality hill-grown Rice can be grown on almost any tropical or subtropical terrain. Rice is also classified by size and shape, as long-, medium- or short-grain, and by colour, as White (with the husk, bran and germ removed) or Brown (with only the inedible husk removed). Many methods of milling, polishing, parboiling, etc., are employed in different cultures, resulting in many different forms and nutrient values of the final product.

Rice is classified according to the processing it receives: paddy rice, brown (husked/whole) rice, regular milled white rice, par-boiled, instant/pre-cooked rice, jasmine, wild rice, basmati, popped, and rice semolina, aka rice flour

Rice is used in a great variety of dishes, often as a base for meat or vegetables. Specialised ethnic dishes include Italian risotto and Japanese sushi.

Cereal; hard, starchy kernel is the part we eat; this surrounded - in plant form - by a series of bran coats (lots of vitamins and minerals), and a rough outer, inedible hull. Rice that is rich in starch is also used extensively as breakfast foods - as puffed Rice, flakes, or Rice crispies. Starchy types of Rice are also used in pastries, soups, and starch pastes; glutinous types, containing a sugary material instead of starch, are used in the Orient in candies and for other special purposes. Rice is important in the manufacture of alcoholic beverages. Rice flour, a product of final milling, is used in various mixes.

Rice is a good source of carbohydrate; brown rice provides the same energy as white, but contains more vitamins and minerals. Rice bran, the grain's outer layer, is high in soluble fibre and is effective in lowering cholesterol. Enriched or converted Rice contains calcium, iron and many B-complex vitamins, with Brown Rice being slightly richer in all the nutrients.

All parts of the plant, and even the water from soaking or cooking Rice, and the lye from charred stems, figure in folk medicine, in a great variety of uses. B-vitamin-rich unpolished Rice is a preventative and treatment of beriberi.

Talc-coated Rice (clearly labelled as such) is available only in a few markets, usually those specialising in South American foods. It must be thoroughly rinsed before cooking, as the talc can be contaminated with asbestos.

See under Environment. Rice hulls (bran) and straw used for animal fodder, and the latter can be made into fabric. Rice hulls are used for fuel, insulation, and in certain manufacturing processes such as the production of purified alpha cellulose and furfural. Rice straw is used as roofing and packing material, feed, fertiliser, and fuel.

Generally regarded as a weak allergen and eaten as part of a hypoallergenic diet.

Hypoallergenic rice has been produced by enzymatic means (Ikezawa 1992 ref.1371 5) (Adashi 1995 ref.2516 6).

 

Adverse Reactions:

IMMUNE REACTIONS


[ 1 / 44 ]

The risk factors for sensitisation to rice and the involved allergens are still partially unknown. In this study we evaluated the clinically relevant aspects of rice allergy in DBPCF-positive patients, the major rice allergens, the severity of peach- and rice-induced symptoms in respect to Pru p 3 sensitisation and the role of anti-rPru p 3 IgE levels as a risk factor for rice allergy. In 148 peach-allergic subjects, patients with allergic reactions to rice and rice-positive serum IgE were selected. Symptoms were verified by double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFCs), performed at a maximum dosage of 25 g. Eight out of 10 recruited rice-allergic patients had positive DBPCFCs, while 2 patients were not challenged due to their previously documented severe reactions. All patients with rice-induced symptoms were Pru p 3 positive and presented with higher anti-rPru p 3 levels than the rice-sensitised but tolerant patients. A 9-kDa lipid transfer protein, which was highly homologous to Pru p 3, was identified as the major rice allergen and elicited a positive response in all of the patients. Five patients reacted to a putative 15- to 17-kDa rice allergenic protein, and 3 patients reacted to an [alpha]-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor that was approximately 20 kDa. The study concludes that allergic reactions to rice can arise in patients with peach allergies who are sensitised to Pru p 3, particularly in patients with high anti-rPru p 3 IgE levels. (Pastorello 2013 ref.28905 7)

Reference:
Pastorello EA, Scibilia J, Farioli L, Primavesi L, Giuffrida MG, Mascheri A, Piantanida M, Mirone C, Stafylaraki C, Violetta MR, Nichelatti M, Preziosi D, Losappio L, Pravettoni V. Rice allergy demonstrated by double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge in peach-allergic patients is related to lipid transfer protein reactivity. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2013 Mar 15;161(3):265-273



[ 2 / 44 ]

A case of rice allergy in a patient with bakers asthma is described. A 65-year-old man with a history of baker’s asthma for 10 years presented at allergy unit after experiencing at least four episodes of generalized urticaria, rhinitis with snee- zing, and dyspnea, all within 30 min after eating a ‘risotto’ dish or other foods containing cooked rice flour. On ISAC, IgE reactivity to wheat alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor (nTri a aA_TI) and lipid tranfer protein (rTri a 14) was found. The authors hypothesize that the reaction by oral ingestion was elicited by one or both rice allergens, homologous to those triggering backer’s asthma by inhalation, have caused anaphylaxis by ingestion although although they point out that they cannot exclude a genuine sensitization to other specific rice allergens that are not yet available for in-vitro CRD. (Villalta 2012 ref.28479 7)

Reference:
Villalta D, Longo G, Mistrello G, Amato S, Asero R. A case of rice allergy in a patient with baker's asthma. Eur Ann Allergy Clin Immunol 2012 Oct;44(5):207-209



[ 3 / 44 ]

A 36-year-old woman who had been working for two years in a pizzeria kneading pizza dough reported immediate rhinoconjunctivitis while manipulating pizza dough during the past six months. She attributed typical rhinoconjunctival symptoms due to a special flour (‘‘oak semolina’’ (contains rice flour)) poured in the location where pizza dough was blended. SPT was positive for a number of allergens, including rye and rice flour. Skin prick-by-prick resulted positive
against rice powder flour and negative against wheat flour. sIgE was raised for a number of allergens and for rice flour: 0.88 kU/L. She did not complain about experiencing symptoms after eating boiled rice or the ingestion of prepared food. A challenge was conducted. After 5 min of handling rice flour, our patient suffered from intense sneezing, rhinorrhoea and itchy eyes. Fifteen minutes later an anterior rhinomanometry was fulfilled which measured severe obstruction of both nostrils. (Antolin-Amerigo 2012 ref.27632 5)

Reference:
Antolin-Amerigo D, Rodríguez-Rodríguez M, Barbarroja Escudero J, Pérez Bustamante MS, Jimeno Nogales L, Guerrero Ríos JA, Mohedano-Vicente E, Alvarez-Mon M. Occupational rhinitis caused by rice flour in a pizzeria worker. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr ) 2012 Apr 11;



[ 4 / 44 ]

In this case study rice allergens were identified, presumably responsible for anaphylaxis after ingestion of rice in a German patient. Prick-to-prick tests were positive to raw and cooked rice (basmati rice and long-grain rice) and preparations of different rice extracts. Specific IgE against rice (f9) was 1.87 kU(A)/l. The BAT showed specific IgE-mediated activation of basophils after stimulation with rice extracts. Four IgE-reactive rice proteins with an apparent molecular weight of 49, 52, 56 and 98 kDa were identified. Only binding to the 56-kDa glycoprotein was at least partially independent from cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD), whereas IgE binding to the other rice proteins was completely inhibited by pre-incubation with the CCD MUXF derived from bromelain. Therefore, yet unidentified high-molecular-weight allergens from rice seeds, predominantly a 56-kDa glycoprotein, seem to be responsible for anaphylaxis after consumption of rice in a German patient. (Trcka 2011 ref.27150 3)

Reference:
Trcka J, Schad SG, Scheurer S, Conti A, Vieths S, Gross G, Trautmann A. Rice-Induced Anaphylaxis: IgE-Mediated Allergy against a 56-kDa Glycoprotein. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2011 Dec 28;158(1):9-17



[ 5 / 44 ]

Thirty-five children experienced 66 episodes of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome. The mean age at initial presentation was 5.5 months. Children frequently experienced multiple episodes before a correct diagnosis was made. Twenty-nine children reacted to 1 food, and 6 reacted to 2 foods. Causative foods for the 35 children were rice (n = 14), soy (n = 12), cow's milk (n = 7), vegetables and fruits (n = 3), meats (n = 2), oats (n = 2), and fish (n = 1). In the 66 episodes, vomiting was the most common clinical feature (100%), followed by lethargy (85%), pallor (67%), and diarrhea (24%). A temperature of <36 degrees C at presentation was recorded for 24% of episodes. A platelet count of >500 x 10(9) cells per L was recorded for 63% of episodes with blood count results. Only 2 of the 19 children who presented to an emergency department with their initial reactions were discharged with correct diagnoses. (Mehr 2009 ref.24044 7)

Reference:
Mehr S, Kakakios A, Frith K, Kemp AS. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome: 16-year experience. Pediatrics 2009 Mar;123(3):e459-64.



[ 6 / 44 ]

Cow's milk and soy are the most common causes of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES), but cereal grains (rice, oat, and barley), fish, poultry, and vegetables may also cause FPIES. Rice is the most common solid food causing FPIES. Rice FPIES is associated with more severe reactions than other foods. Infants presenting acutely may be hypothermic (<36 degrees C) and have thrombocytosis. Finding of hypoalbuminemia and weight gain less than 10 g/day helps to differentiate chronic infantile cow's milk FPIES from infectious causes. Gastric juice leukocytes more than 10 cells per high-power field are found in infants with positive oral food challenge to cow's milk. (Nowak-Wegrzyn 2009 ref.23642 7)

Reference:
Nowak-Wegrzyn A, Muraro A. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2009 May 26;



[ 7 / 44 ]

A retrospective study of children presenting with FPIES to the Children's Hospital at Westmead, NSW, Australia, over a 16 year period, reports on 14 children with 26 episodes of rice FPIES compared with 17 children with 30 episodes of cow's milk (n=10) or soy (n=7) FPIES. Children with rice FPIES were more likely to have FPIES to other foods (36%) compared with those with FPIES to cow's milk/soy (0%). Rice caused more episodes of FPIES before a correct diagnosis was made and triggered more severe reactions with higher rates of intravenous fluid resuscitation (43% vs. 17%) compared to reactions caused by cow's milk/soy. (Mehr 2008 ref.22593 7)

Reference:
Mehr S, Kakakios A, Kemp AS. Rice: a common and severe cause of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome. Arch Dis Child 2009 Mar;94(3):220-223



[ 8 / 44 ]

Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis after ingestion of boiled rice. a 35-year-old woman presented with 2 episodes of rhinoconjunctivitis involving sneezing, itching of the eyes, nose, and ears, and moderate nasal congestion; both episodes had developed within minutes of eating cooked rice. She had previously worked in a bakery for 5 years and had experienced similar symptoms when kneading rice flour. She had never experienced any symptoms when working with or after ingesting flour made from other cereals. The only positive result was to skin prick test with rice flour. Prick-to-prick tests performed with raw and boiled rice at 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes were all positive. Total serum IgE was 17.8 IU/mL, while rice-specific IgE was 1.32 kU/L. Levels of IgE
antibodies to the peach allergen Pru p3 and wheat a-amylase inhibitor were 0 kU/L. The patient immediately developed moderate rhinoconjunctivitis following an open, placebo-controlled food challenge test conducted with boiled rice. An IgE-binding band of 19 kDa in our analysis of both rice flour and boiled rice.
(Monzón 2008 ref.23091 2)

Reference:
Monzón S, Lombardero M, Pérez-Camo I, Sáenz D, Lasanta J. Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis after ingestion of boiled rice. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2008;18(6):487-8.



[ 9 / 44 ]

An Indian study was carried out to identify rice allergy in patients of rhinitis and asthma and identify the allergenic proteins in raw and cooked rice. Of 1200 patients screened using standard questionnaire, 165 presented with history of rice allergy. Of these, 20 (12.1%) patients demonstrated marked positive skin prick test (SPT) and 13 showed significantly raised specific IgE to rice compared to normal controls. Double blind placebo controlled food challenge confirmed rice allergy in 6/10 patients. Sera showed 14-16, 33, 56 and 60 kDa proteins as major IgE-binding components in rice. Boiled rice retained four IgE reactive proteins of 16, 23, 33 and 53 kDa. In summary, IgE-mediated rice allergy affects 0.8% of asthma and rhinitis cases. The subjects with severe SPT reactions (4 mm or above) and specific IgE, 6.9 ng/ml to rice demonstrated positive blinded food challenge with clinical symptoms. (Kumar 2007 ref.20742 3)

Reference:
Kumar R, Srivastava P, Kumari D, Fakhr H, Sridhara S, Arora N, Gaur SN, Singh BP. Rice (Oryza sativa) allergy in rhinitis and asthma patients: a clinico-immunological study. Immunobiology 2007;212(2):141-7.



[ 10 / 44 ]

In a study evaluating wild and hypo-allergenic rice, sera from 9 rice-allergic children, ranging in age from 5 months to 10 years, with high sensitivity was selected. Atopic dermatitis was present in 7 patients, asthma in 3, allergic rhinitis in 5 and allergic conjuntivitis in 1. (Yum 2006 ref.15723 3)

Reference:
Yum HY, Lee KE, Choi SY, Yang HS, Sohn MH, Kim KE, Lee SI. Wild rice, hypoallergenic rice--immunologic comparison. Allergy Asthma Proc 2006 Jul;27(4):387-392



[ 11 / 44 ]

A report of 2 cases of rice allergy possibly induced by being exposed to rice allergens in the family business. A 7-year-old girl with asthma, who was able to eat cooked rice, but with a serum specific IgE to rice of 38.3 UA/ml, was proposed that the asthma was exacerbated by rice powder inhalation as the family milled rice. Once removed from this environment, her symptoms improved greatly. A 3-year old boy with atopic dermatitis whose family brewed sake (made from rice). All specific IgE was negative except for rice - 2.21 UA/ml). At 16 months of age it had increased to 87.1. Skin improved when rice was removed from the diet, but a flare occurred once when he came near to rice-threshing or milling machinery. (Nambu 2006 ref.14354 5)

Reference:
Nambu M, Shintaku N, Ohta S. Rice allergy. Pediatrics 2006 Jun;117(6):2331-2332



[ 12 / 44 ]

A report on 3 cases of rice-induced anaphylaxis in LTP-allergic patients. In vitro inhibition studies, carried out using LTP purified from both rice and apple as well as whole peach extract, show that LTP was the relevant allergen in these patients and demonstrate the cross-reactivity between rice LTP and peach/apple LTP.

Three patients with allergy to rice are described: A 50-year-old woman with a history of grass pollen hypersensitivity and oral itching following the ingestion of a large number of fruits and tree nuts who had experienced generalized urticaria and angioedema associated with dyspnea about 30 min after eating a ‘risotto’ dish (boiled rice with mushrooms), and about 2 months later she experienced oral allergy syndromes followed by generalized urticaria and collapse following the ingestion of a risotto with saffron. A 25-year-old woman with grass pollen allergy with oral allergy to a number of fruits and nuts who had experienced generalized urticaria and angioedema associated with dyspnea about 1 h after eating a risotto dish (boiled rice with saffron). A 30-year-old man with a history of grass pollen allergy with oral itching following the ingestion of fruits and nuts who experienced several urticaria following the ingestion of risotto dishes (rice with chicory) and onion. (Asero 2006 ref.16090 9)

Reference:
Asero R, Amato S, Alfieri B, Folloni S, Mistrello G. Rice: Another potential cause of food allergy in patients sensitized to lipid transfer protein. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2006 Dec 28;143(1):69-74



[ 13 / 44 ]

Lipid transfer protein is involved in rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma produced by rice inhalation is described in three patients with respiratory allergy (asthma or rhinoconjunctivitis) to raw rice by inhalation. All experienced an acute allergic reaction while they threw rice in different weddings. All tolerated rice by ingestion but were allergic to peach. Serum specific IgE to rice and peach were detected in all three patients. rPru p3 as well as rice seed LTP (lipid transfer protein) bound IgE from sera of two patients (sera was not available for immunodetection in one patient). Skin specific IgE tests were positive for natural Pru p 3. LTPs are heat stable thus that these patients could tolerate cooked rice may indicate some modification of rice LTP during cooking. (Enrique 2005 ref.12837 5)

Reference:
Enrique E, Ahrazem O, Bartra J, Latorre MD, Castello JV, de Mateo JA, Montoya E, Malek T, Barber D, Salcedo G. Lipid transfer protein is involved in rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma produced by rice inhalation. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2005 Oct;116(4):926-8.



[ 14 / 44 ]

Cereal-induced anaphylaxis in an adult after eating a baby cereal formula. A 34-year-old man, a carpenter, with previously diagnosed occupational asthma due to rye flour added to wood boards, developed severe anaphylaxis after testing a spoonful of baby cereal food - a non-gluten rice and corn formula). He developed respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms, paleness and decreased level of consciousness. Skin prick test was positive for wheat, barley, rye flour, peanut and mustard. Serum specific IgE were found for all of these. A DBPCFC was positive for 0.1g of the cereal. A 37 kDa protein band was demonstrated in the baby food, flours and mustard. In addition, a defined 23 kDa band was found in the corn flour. (Asensio 2004 ref.9960 8)

Reference:
Asensio T, Armentia A, Lombardero M, Callejo A, Martin G, Castrodeza J. Cereal-induced anaphylaxis in an adult after eating a baby cereal formula. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2004;32(5):310-1



[ 15 / 44 ]

Infantile food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a severe, cell-mediated gastrointestinal food hypersensitivity typically provoked by cow's milk or soy. This study reports on other foods causing this syndrome: 14 infants with FPIES caused by grains (rice, oat, and barley), vegetables (sweet potato, squash, string beans, peas), or poultry (chicken and turkey) were identified. Symptoms of typical FPIES are delayed (median: 2 hours) and include the onset of vomiting, diarrhea, and lethargy/dehydration. Eleven infants (78%) reacted to >1 food protein, including 7 (50%) that reacted to >1 grain. Nine (64%) of all patients with solid food-FPIES also had cow's milk and/or soy-FPIES. Initial presentation was severe in 79% of the patients, prompting sepsis evaluations (57%) and hospitalization (64%) for dehydration or shock. None of the patients developed FPIES to maternally ingested foods while breastfeeding unless the causal food was fed directly to the infant. (Nowak-Wegrzyn 2003 ref.7791 5)

Reference:
Nowak-Wegrzyn A, Sampson HA, Wood RA, Sicherer SH. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome caused by solid food proteins. Pediatrics 2003;111(4 Pt 1):829-35



[ 16 / 44 ]

Anaphylaxis to rice by inhalation of vapors during its boiling. The ingestion of rice can trigger eczema, asthma, rhinitis, or gastrointestinal symptoms, and according to this study, anaphylaxis following inhalation of boiling rice vapor. An 8-year-old boy developed extensive urticarial lesions and a sudden loss of consciousness while in the presence of steam from rice being boiled. Skin prick test was positive. DBPCFC with rice with 4 doubling doses up to 96 g induced eczema after 24 hours. Serum specific IgE for rice was raised. A 16 kDa protein was detected corresponding with a member of the alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor protein family. A 25 kDa protein band corresponding to the major rice allergen was also seen, as well as a 27 kDa protein. He appeared to have developed oral tolerance to rice but a DBPCFC with steam inhalation confirmed allergy to rice vapor. (Fiocchi 2003 ref.7244 5)

Reference:
Fiocchi A, Bouygue GR, Restani P, Gaiaschi A, Terracciano L, Martelli A. Anaphylaxis to rice by inhalation. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;111(1):193-5



[ 17 / 44 ]

A 9-year-old girl seen during a follow up visit for asthma (perennial symptoms) reported that she 'dislikes' foods with rice and avoided eating them for the last 3 years. Attempts to feed her with rice had resulted in immediate nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhea. On one occasion, she had suffered urticaria-angioedema in the kitchen when her mother was sorting rice. She had previously been found allergic to grass pollens through intradermal but not epidermal tests. Skin prick tests and prick-prick tests with various cereals including rice, wheat, barley, oat and lentil, demonstrated a marked (++++) wheal and flare reaction only to rice with both tests. Total IgE was 165 kU/l, and rice specific IgE was 13.2 kU/l. A double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge which result in nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhea after 10 min of ingestion. She had no problems when eating other cereals. She therefore demonstrated allergy to the ingestion of cooked rice and inhalation of raw rice proteins. (Orhan 2003 ref.7993 5)

Reference:
Orhan F, Sekerel BE. A case of isolated rice allergy. Allergy 2003;58(5):456-7



[ 18 / 44 ]

Immediate hypersensitivity reaction after ingestion of rice. (Wüthrich 2002 ref.5329 5)

Reference:
Wüthrich B, Scheitlin T, Ballmer-Weber B. Isolated allergy to rice. Allergy 2002;57(3):263-4



[ 19 / 44 ]

A 6-month-old girl had been admitted three times due to the sudden onset of respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms, paleness and a reduced level of consciousness. A provocation test revealed an anaphylactic reaction to rice flour. (Klein 2001 ref.7463 1)

Reference:
Klein SK, Kremers EM, Vreede WB. Six-month old girl with an anaphylactic reaction to rice flour, a rare food allergy. [Dutch] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2001;145(30):1471-3



[ 20 / 44 ]

A 30-year-old man with atopic dermatitis had had erythema and itching of the hands after washing rice in water, though he had always eaten cooked rice without problems. Urticarial erythema occurred after several minutes. Prick test with water used to wash regular rice was +++. However prick test reaction with water used to wash allergen-reduced rice was +. Total serum IgE was 4200 lU/ml and RAST was class 2 for rice. In immunoblotting analysis of 3 atopic dermatitis patients with high serum specific IgE for rice, several polypeptides were detected, but none for this patient. These results suggest that the allergen responsible for contact urticaria in this patient might be water-soluble, heat-unstable, and not contained in allergen-reduced rice. (Yamakawa 2001 ref.7464 3)

Reference:
Yamakawa Y, Ohsuna H, Aihara M, Tsubaki K, Ikezawa Z. Contact urticaria from rice. Contact Dermatitis 2001;44(2):91-3



[ 21 / 44 ]

In 148 Malaysian adults with symptoms of nasal congestion and rhinorrhea and 113 control subjects without rhinitis symptoms, skin prick test evaluation of 11 foods common to the Malaysian diet. 48% of the patients with rhinitis had positive SPT results to foods, compared with 4.4% of control subjects. The most commonly implicated foods were shrimp (48%) and rice (30%), which are common in the Malaysian diet. (Gendeh 2000 ref.7561 1)

Reference:
Gendeh BS, Murad S, Razi AM, Abdullah N, Mohamed AS, Kadir KA. Skin prick test reactivity to foods in adult Malaysians with rhinitis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2000;122(5):758-62



[ 22 / 44 ]

Allergic reactions are common in communities where rice is consumed as a staple food, but is uncommon in westernized societies although the prevalence is increasing. Two different routes of exposure leading to immediate hypersensitivity reactions have been documented: ingestion of the cooked cereal (Nakase 1998 ref.6684 7) and inhalation of vapors during its boiling. (Fiocchi 2003 ref.7244 5)

Reference:
Nakase M, Usui Y, Alvarez-Nakase AM, Adachi T, Urisu A, Nakamura R, Aoki N, Kitajima K, Matsuda T. Cereal allergens: rice-seed allergens with structural similarity to wheat and barley allergens. Allergy 1998;53(46 Suppl):55-7



[ 23 / 44 ]

Ocular type Atopic Dermatitis belongs to the most severe end of the spectrum of AD, and IgE-RAST for rice and wheat were significantly higher in this form of AD. Food antigens may contribute to the pathogenesis of severe AD resulting in ocular complications. (Uchio 1998 ref.2337 2)

Reference:
Uchio E, Miyakawa K, Ikezawa Z, Ohno S Systemic and local immunological features of atopic dermatitis patients with ocular complications. Br J Ophthalmol 1998;82(1):82-7



[ 24 / 44 ]

A 43-year-old patient with rice-induced severe bronchial asthma was admitted to hospital. Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-radioallergosorbent test (RAST) for rice was positive. (Arai 1998 ref.1276 3)

Reference:
Arai T, Takaya T, et al. Bronchial asthma induced by rice. Intern Med 1998;37(1):98-101



[ 25 / 44 ]

Anaphylaxis induced by exercise and related to multiple food intake. Three patients with food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis. In Patient 1, tomato, zucchini, and wheat resulted in adverse reactions: in Patient 2, potato, peanuts, and tomato; in Patient 3, rice and peanuts. SPTs and RASTs to foods predisposing the reaction were positive. Food-exercise combined challenge may be useful in identifying foods that favor FDEI in children with multiple food-dependent FDEI. (Caffarelli 1997 ref.617 37)

Reference:
Caffarelli C, Cataldi R, Giordano S, Cavagni G. Anaphylaxis induced by exercise and related to multiple food intake. Allergy Asthma Proc 1997;18(4):245-8



[ 26 / 44 ]

No evidence of sensitization to topical oat and rice colloidal grain suspensions used for eczema in normal and atopic children in the group studied (Pigatto 1997 ref.2146 7)

Reference:
Pigatto P, Bigardi A, et al. An evaluation of the allergic contact dermatitis potential of colloidal grain
suspensions. Am J Contact Dermat 1997;8(4):207-209



[ 27 / 44 ]

An adult case of rice-induced asthma with aspirin idiosyncrasy. (Owan 1995 ref.724 23)

Reference:
Owan I, Shimoji K, Miyazato A, Yara S, Kakazu T, et al. An adult case of rice-induced asthma with aspirin idiosyncrasy. [Japanese] Arerugi 1995;44(7):708-10



[ 28 / 44 ]

Contact urticaria. (Sasai 1995 ref.7565 3)

Reference:
Sasai S, Takahashi K, Takahashi K, Tagami H. Contact urticaria to rice. Br J Dermatol 1995;132(5):836-7



[ 29 / 44 ]

Rhinoconjunctivitis-asthma and contact urticaria from handling rice and other cereals in a housewife. She tolerated cooked cereals. Both skin prick tests with a rice extract and a rub test with raw rice gave positive results. The challenge test with raw rice resulted in immediate and late clinical and spirometric responses. (Lezaun 1994 ref.1317 9)

Reference:
Lezaun A, Igea JM, et al. Asthma and contact urticaria caused by rice in a housewife. Allergy 1994;49(2):92-5



[ 30 / 44 ]

Food-dependant exercise-induced anaphylaxis. 3 patients, age 7-19 yrs, with recurrent episodes of ElAn. A baseline exercise challenge was negative. A second challenge was performed an hour after the intake of each of the 16 foods suspected to favour the reaction. Tomato, wheat, rice and chestnut provoked anaphylactic symptoms. Skin prick tests and specific IgE were positive to these foods, suggesting an IgE mechanism. However their sensitivity was poor. (Caffarelli 1994 ref.6609 8)

Reference:
Caffarelli C, Giordano S, Stapane I, Rossi C, Cavagni G. Unusual triggering factors of the food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis. Ann Allergy 1994;72:75



[ 31 / 44 ]

Food sensitive enteropathy may be caused by milk, the most frequent and best known example, and soy protein, egg, fish, chicken meat, ground rice and probably gluten may also temporarily damage (excluding celiac disease which is permanent) the small intestinal mucosa in infancy. (Walker-Smith 1994 ref.7566 5)

Reference:
Walker-Smith J. Food sensitive enteropathy: overview and update. Acta Paediatr Jpn 1994;36(5):545-9



[ 32 / 44 ]

Arthritis of the third metacarpal joint of a 59-year old woman known to be allergic to yeast the day after ingesting rolls and fresh bread. Symptoms resolved after 5 days. She had previously experienced a painful metatarsal joint from rice allergy following chronic ingestion of mega-vitamins including vitamin-B Complex made from rice. (Pulec 1993 ref.10925 7)

Reference:
Pulec JL. Allergic arthritis. Ear Nose Throat J 1993;72(2):115.



[ 33 / 44 ]

In 1006 Japanese patients with typical and atypical lesions of atopic dermatitis analysed statistically by correlating the clinical severity to serum IgE values, rice antigens suggested a strong contribution of rice allergy to the development of severe this condition. 25 patients with severe AD and positive rice-RAST were treated by rice exclusion diet, of which 9 were remarkably responsive, 10 cases moderately responsive and 6 cases unresponsive. The rice-RAST titre decreased most remarkably in the 1st group. The wheat-RAST titre also decreased in the 1st, in spite of taking wheat foods every day, but increased in the 3rd. (Ikezawa 1992 ref.1371 1)

Reference:
Ikezawa Z, Miyakawa K, et al. A probable involvement of rice allergy in severe type of atopic dermatitis in Japan. Acta Derm Venereol Suppl Stockh 1992;176:103-7



[ 34 / 44 ]

Contact urticaria from raw rice in a 17-year-old female presenting with acute erythema of the hands, oedema of the eyelids, dyspnoea and cough. Symptoms occurred after throwing raw rice during a wedding, although she was able to ingest cooked rice. The authors suggest that the adverse respiratory and skin reactions were as a result of the rice dust. (di Lernia 1992 ref.7568 3)

Reference:
di Lernia V, Albertini G, Bisighini G. Immunologic contact urticaria syndrome from raw rice. Contact Dermatitis 1992;27(3):196



[ 35 / 44 ]

Based on a statistical analysis of the correlation between rice-RAST score and clinical severity in atopic dermatitis patients, the authors have reported the probable involvement of rice allergy in many such severe cases. (Ikezawa 1992 ref.21667 7) (In: Yamakawa 2001 ref.7464 3)

Reference:
Ikezawa Z, Ikebe T, Ogura H, Odajima H, Furosaka F, Komatau H. Mass trial of hypoallergenic rice (HRS-1) produced by enzymatic digestion in atopic dermatitis with suspected rice allergy. Acta Dermato-venereologica 1992;(Suppl 176):108-112.



[ 36 / 44 ]

Anaphalaxis and anaphalactoid reactions. (Borchers 1992 ref.554 62) (Golbert 1969 ref.286 57)

Reference:
Borchers SD, Li BU, Friedman RA, McClung HJ. Rice-induced anaphylactoid reaction. J Pediatr Gastro Nut 1992;15:321-324



[ 37 / 44 ]

The usefulness of hypoallergenic rice (HRS-1) was clinically evaluated in 43 patients with severe atopic dermatitis (AD), who were suspected of having rice allergy. The patients were fed with HRS-1 instead of eliminating both regular rice and wheat from their daily diet. Significant decrease of ADASI were observed in the 2nd and 4th week and at the end of the replacement therapy (5.6 weeks on average). On final evaluation, 74% of the patients tested showed "moderate" to "remarkable" improvement, and in 53% of the patients HRS-1 resulted in a "moderate" to "remarkable" reduction in the dosage and the grade of potency of the steroid ointment concomitantly used for the treatment. (Ikezawa 1991 ref.21666 2)

Reference:
Ikezawa Z, Ikebe T, Ogura H, Odajima H, Kurosaka F, Sase K, Sugiuchi M, Sugiyama A, Suguro H, Suzuki S, et al. Clinical effect of hypoallergenic rice (HRS-1) in atopic dermatitis. HRS-1 Research Group. [Japanese] Arerugi 1991 Jun;40(6):633-42.



[ 38 / 44 ]

Contact dermatitis from rice leaf. (Nakamura 1983 ref.7628 1)

Reference:
Nakamura T. Contact dermatitis to oryza. Contact Dermatitis 1983;9:80



[ 39 / 44 ]

Pruritis. Flushing. Quincke's oedema. (Hoogenband 1983 ref.556 23)

Reference:
van den Hoogenband HM, Ketel WG. Allergy to rice. Contact Dermatitis 1983;9:527-528



[ 40 / 44 ]

Enteropathy related to fish, rice, and chicken. 3 children with cows' milk protein intolerance and associated enteropathy related to fish, rice, and chicken, respectively. Repeated intestinal biopsies before and after an acute challenge with the specific food showed changes in the histological appearance of the intestinal mucosa identical with those observed after the acute administration of cows' milk. (Vitoria 1982 ref.557 83)

Reference:
Vitoria JC, Camerero C, Sojo A, Ruiz A, et al. Enteropathy related to fish, rice, and chicken. Arch Dis Child 1982;57:44-48



[ 41 / 44 ]

Raw rice is more allergenic than cooked. In Japan, rice has been shown to aggravate atopic dermatitis through IgE mechanisms. (Shibasaki 1979 ref.433 90)

Reference:
Shibasaki M, Suzuki S, Nemoto H, Kuroume T. Allergenicity and lymphocyte-stimulating property of rice protein. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1979;64:259-265



[ 42 / 44 ]

Food-dependant exercise-induced anaphylaxis. (Hanakawa 1998 ref.6562 5)

Reference:
Solomon, W. R. Fungus aerosols arising from cold-mist vaporizers. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1974;54:222-228



[ 43 / 44 ]

Fifteen cases of systemic allergic reactions to ingcslant antigens arc reported. penicillin, pinto bean, halibut, rice, potato, Brazil nut, shrimp, milk, a cereal mix, garbanzo bean, tangerine, salicylsalicylic acid, and demethylchlortetracycline.

Case
A 37-year-old woman with dyspnea, generalized urticaria and angioedema, and syncope. She was unconscious with laryngeal stridor, pulmonary wheezing, cyanosis, angioedema of the face and oropharynx, and generalized urticaria. Subsequently, 4 reactions of varying severity occurred. Pinto bean became apparent from a diet diary. A prick test with extract prepared from fresh, raw pinto bean caused a large local cutaneous reaction and was followed by mild generalized symptoms of dyspnea, wheezing, pruritus, and flushing.

Case
A 27-year-old man, while ingesting halibut and toast, abruptly developed dyspnea, generalized urticaria, facial angioedema, dizziness, "faintness," diarrhea, nausea, and emesis. He was hypotensive. Wheezing, generalized urticaria, and facial angioedema were present. A similar reaction occurred several months earlier while ingesting halibut. A cutaneous prick test was strongly positive to halibut extract.

Case
A 21-year-old woman experienced dyspnea, dizziness, pruritus, swelling of the face, weakness, headache, and abdominal cramps. These symptoms developed while ingesting rice. Similar reactions, including syncope, had previously occurred during ingestion of rice. She had facial angioedema, generalized urticaria, cyanosis, and wheezing. A cutaneous prick test was strongly positive with a dilute solution of rice extract.

Case
A 17-year-old boy with wheezing, dyspnea, angioedema, dizziness, weakness, and chest pain described as "tightness" which occurred repeatedly after ingestion of potato. Cutaneous scratch tests were positive to potato extract.

Case
A 28-year-old man who experienced immediate systemic allergic reactions numerous times after ingestion of Brazil nut, pistachio nut, and cashew. Reactions were characterized by rhinorrhea, dyspnea; cyanosis; angioedema of face, tongue, and pharynx; abdominal cramps; weakness; and dizziness. A cutaneous scratch test with Brazil nut extract was performed elsewhere and caused a large local reaction and wheezing.
Case
A 24-year-old with a history of ingestion of shrimp and lobster which had repeatedly caused rhinorrhea, angioedema of face and oropharynx, urticaria, dyspnea, wheezing, dizziness, and syncope. A cutaneous prick test with shrimp extract was markedly positive. He later ingested shrimp casserole to avoid insulting a girl friend despite knowledge of his sensitivity to this food. Pruritus, generalized urticaria, swelling of the face and neck, dyspnea, dysphagia, laryngeal stridor, weakness, and dizziness developed immediately.
Case
A 5-month-old with reactions which invariably followed ingestion of pasteurized but otherwise uncooked milk. Reactions were characterized by pallor, cyanosis, muscle flaccidity, and generalized urticaria.. On one occasion, milk was accidentally spilled on him; urticaria developed at all sites of contact. Further cutaneous testing was deferred. He tolerated milk in baked foods.
Case
A 49-year-old man with dyspnea, swelling of the face and oropharynx, pruritus, urticaria, and dyspnea which developed while he was ingesting a cereal mix. Angioedema of the face, generalized urticaria, cyanosis, and wheezing were present. Cutaneous prick tests were positive with the specific lot of cereal mix which the patient was ingesting. Cutaneous tests with individual ingredients of the cereal mix were negative. The reaction is attributed to the specific lot of cereal mix and may have been caused by a contaminant.
Case 10
A 39-year-old with dizziness, dyspnea, wheezing, generalized pruritus, and swelling of the face and oropharynx. Positive findings included rhinorrhea, lacrimation, generalized urticaria, and angioedema of the face and oropharynx. Partially cooked garbanzo bean (chick-pea) was ingested immediately prior to his reaction. A cutaneous prick test with this food was positive. He tolerated well-cooked beans.

Case 11
A 33-year-old woman suddenly developed generalized pruritus, dyspnea, abdominal "cramps," nausea, and dizziness while eating a meal. Physical findings included generalized urticaria, angioedema of face and oropharynx, and wheezing. Tangerine was among the foods ingested before the reaction. A cutaneous prick test with fresh tangerine juice was positive. She subsequently ingested lemonade and fresh orange without adverse effect. Cutaneous tests with fresh orange juice were negative.

Case
A 37-year-old man with adverse effects to salicylsalicylic acid and acetylsalicylic acid.

Case
A 34-year-old male physician experienced within 20 minutes of ingestion of demethylchlortetracycline, headache, transient syncope, dyspnea, "tightness in the chest," angioedema of the face and hands, and generalized urticaria developed. Findings were generalized urticaria, periorbital edema, and edema of the hands and feet.

Case
A 22-year-old man with chest pain dyspnea, swelling of the face, generalized pruritus, and syncope developed while lie was ingesting a meal. Similar reactions had occurred 5 times previously. The causative antigen was undetermined, but all reactions followed ingestion of various foods containing a large mold content. (Golbert, 1969 ref.286 73)

Reference:
Golbert, T, Patterson, R, Pruzansky, JJ. Systemic allergic reactions to ingested antigens. J Allergy 1969;44:96-107



[ 44 / 44 ]

See also: Rice pollen

Rhinoconjunctivitis. Asthma. Contact urticaria, atopic dermatitis and dermatitis. Abdominal cramping, pain, nausea and vomiting. Angioedema. Dyspnoea. Gastrointestinal and nasal symptoms.

Reference:
Editor Comment Editorial comment, common knowledge, or still to add - -




Non-Immune reactions


[ 1 ]

Recently, a large epidemiological investigation in a cohort of children at risk for IDDM found that exposure to cereals (rice, wheat, oats, barley, rye) that occurred early (< or = 3 months) as well as late (> or = 7 months) resulted in a significantly higher risk of the appearance of islet cell autoimmunity compared to the introduction between 4 and 6 months. (Guandalini 2007 ref.21598 5)

Reference:
Guandalini S. The influence of gluten: weaning recommendations for healthy children and children at risk for celiac disease. Nestle Nutr Workshop Ser Pediatr Program 2007;60:139-51



[ 2 ]

Five infants with enterocolitis syndrome developed after rice ingestion. The patients presented with vomiting, diarrhea and dehydration. As all patients had symptoms which could have been indicative of a broad spectrum of diseases, a median of two hospitalizations was needed to establish the diagnosis. When the rice protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome is suspected all patients should undergo open food challenge test, as no other diagnostic procedure can confirm the diagnosis. This report shows that even hypoallergenic foods such as rice may cause FPIES and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of profuse vomiting and prostration in infants introduced to some kind of rice protein. (Hojsak 2006 ref.21634 5)

Reference:
Hojsak I, Kljaic-Turkalj M, Misak Z, Kolacek S. Rice protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome. Clin Nutr 2006 Jun;25(3):533-6.



[ 3 ]

Food sensitive enteropathy may be caused by milk, the most frequent and best known example, and soy protein, egg, fish, chicken meat, ground rice and probably gluten may also temporarily damage (excluding celiac disease which is permanent) the small intestinal mucosa in infancy. (Walker-Smith 1994 ref.7566 5)

Shock, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea in 4 infants allergic to rice only. Occult blood in stools were positive in all cases; results of all immunologic tests were negative. (Cavataio 1996 ref.708 12)

Rice- and pea-induced food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, a symptom complex of severe vomiting and diarrhea occurring several hours after the ingestion of particular food proteins in infants. (Sicherer 1998 ref.2389 6)

Biotin deficiency has been observed in an infant fed with amino acid formula and hypoallergenic rice. (Higushi 1996 ref.2453 2)

This article describes a case of T-cell-mediated rice intolerance in an 11-month-old girl. Allergy skin prick test results were negative for rice and positive for egg, milk, and soy. Specific IgE antibodies to rice, egg, peanut, wheat, walnut, codfish, milk, soybean, corn, shrimp, scallops, and clams were undetectable. Results of a single-blind rice food challenge were positive, manifested by emesis that persisted for more than an hour and required intravenous hydration. In vitro lymphoproliferation by the patient's PBLs to rice stimulation was positive. After 6 weeks, rice rechallenge resulted in emesis within 1 hour. Results of patch testing were positive to rice, wheat, and barley but negative to soy, which the patient tolerated on food challenge. Although this patient did not demonstrate IgE antibody to rice, TH1/TH2 cell-mediated responses to rice were detected, and the patient experienced significant morbidity. Patch testing for gastrointestinal food allergies may be useful when the food specific IgE antibody is negative. Probiotic therapy in this patient did not ameliorate her sensitivity to rice, and food elimination remains the only reliable treatment for TH1/TH2-mediated food hypersensitivity. (Gray 2004 ref.10195 0)

Reference:
Reorganization process. Data in process of being reorganized. Editorial staff 2006



[ 4 ]

This article describes a case of T-cell-mediated rice intolerance in an 11-month-old girl. Allergy skin prick test results were negative for rice and positive for egg, milk, and soy. Specific IgE antibodies to rice, egg, peanut, wheat, walnut, codfish, milk, soybean, corn, shrimp, scallops, and clams were undetectable. Results of a single-blind rice food challenge were positive, manifested by emesis that persisted for more than an hour and required intravenous hydration. In vitro lymphoproliferation by the patient's PBLs to rice stimulation was positive. After 6 weeks, rice rechallenge resulted in emesis within 1 hour. Results of patch testing were positive to rice, wheat, and barley but negative to soy, which the patient tolerated on food challenge. Although this patient did not demonstrate IgE antibody to rice, TH1/TH2 cell-mediated responses to rice were detected, and the patient experienced significant morbidity. Patch testing for gastrointestinal food allergies may be useful when the food specific IgE antibody is negative. Probiotic therapy in this patient did not ameliorate her sensitivity to rice, and food elimination remains the only reliable treatment for TH1/TH2-mediated food hypersensitivity. (Gray 2004 ref.10195 0)

Reference:
Gray HC, Foy TM, Becker BA, Knutsen AP. Rice-induced enterocolitis in an infant: TH1/TH2 cellular hypersensitivity and absent IgE reactivity. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2004;93(6):601-5



[ 5 ]

Rice- and pea-induced food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, a symptom complex of severe vomiting and diarrhea occurring several hours after the ingestion of particular food proteins in infants.

Sixteen patients had typical FPIES; 11 reacted to milk, 11 to soy, and 7 to both. Mean age at diagnosis was 7 weeks for milk reactivity and 8 weeks for soy reactivity. Two patients also had rice- and pea-induced FPIES. Among 14 patients who were followed up for a median period of 25 months, loss of sensitivity to milk occurred in 6 of 10 patients and loss of sensitivity to soy occurred in 2 of 8. Six additional cases of FPIES were considered atypical: 1 patient had late-onset disease caused by poultry, and in 5 patients IgE antibody to milk or soy developed. During supervised food challenges with milk and soy, the peripheral blood neutrophil count rose over 3500 cells/mm3 in 9 of 10 positive challenges and did not rise above this value in the 7 negative challenges. Emergency treatment was required in 62% of challenges. (Sicherer 1998 ref.2389 6)

Reference:
Sicherer SH, Eigenmann PA, Sampson HA. Clinical features of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome. J Pediatr 1998;133(2):214-9



[ 6 ]

Biotin deficiency has been observed in an infant fed with amino acid formula and hypoallergenic rice. (Higushi 1996 ref.2453 2)

Reference:
Higuchi R, Noda E, et al. Biotin deficiency in an infant fed with amino acid formula and hypoallergenic rice. Acta Paediatr 1996;85(7):872-4



[ 7 ]

Shock, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea in 4 infants allergic to rice only. Occult blood in stools were positive in all cases; results of all immunologic tests were negative. (Cavataio 1996 ref.708 12)

Reference:
Cavataio F, Carroccio A, Montalto G, Iacono G. Isolated rice intolerance: clinical and immunologic characteristics in four infants. J Ped 1996;128(4):558-60




Occupational reactions


[ 1 ]

Occupational allergy to rice involving alpha-amylase inhibitor as the relevant allergen. (Gonzalez-De-Olano 2012 ref.28079 2)

Reference:
Gonzalez-De-Olano D, Pastor-Vargas C, Perez-Bustamante MS, Maroto AS, Gonzalez-Mancebo E, Gandolfo-Cano M, Bartolome B. Occupational allergy to rice involving alpha-amylase inhibitor as the relevant allergen. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2012 Jul;109(1):71-72



[ 2 ]

A 31-year-old male with work-related rhinitis and conjunctivitis symptoms caused by occupational exposure to rice powder in the grain industry. He showed positive responses to rice extracts on a skin prick test, and a high level of serum specific IgE to rice was detected by ELISA. Occupational rhinitis was confirmed by a nasal provocation test with rice extracts. An IgE ELISA inhibition test showed cross-creativity between rice and various grass pollen extracts. These findings suggest that the inhalation of rice powder can induce IgE-mediated occupational rhino-conjunctivitis, which may be derived from cross-reactivity to major grass pollens. (Kim 2010 ref.27621 8)

Reference:
Kim JH, Kim JE, Choi GS, Hwang EK, An S, Ye YM, Park HS. A case of occupational rhinitis caused by rice powder in the grain industry. Allergy Asthma Immunol Res 2010 Apr;2(2):141-143



[ 3 ]

Three cases of rice-induced occupational asthma. (Kim 2010 ref.24840 7)

Reference:
Kim JH, Choi GS, Kim JE, Ye YM, Park HS. Three cases of rice-induced occupational asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2010 Apr;104(4):353-354



[ 4 ]

Cereal-induced anaphylaxis in an adult after eating a baby cereal formula. A 34-year-old man, a carpenter, with previously diagnosed occupational asthma due to rye flour added to wood boards, developed severe anaphylaxis after testing a spoonful of baby cereal food - a non-gluten rice and corn formula). He developed respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms, paleness and decreased level of consciousness. Skin prick test was positive for wheat, barley, rye flour, peanut and mustard. Serum specific IgE were found for all of these. A DBPCFC was positive for 0.1g of the cereal. A 37 kDa protein band was demonstrated in the baby food, flours and mustard. In addition, a defined 23 kDa band was found in the corn flour. (Asensio 2004 ref.9960 8)

Reference:
Asensio T, Armentia A, Lombardero M, Callejo A, Martin G, Castrodeza J. Cereal-induced anaphylaxis in an adult after eating a baby cereal formula. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2004;32(5):310-1



[ 5 ]

Asthma induced by the inhalation of vapours during the process of boiling rice. (Gonzalez-Mendiola 2003 ref.8654 6)

Reference:
Gonzalez-Mendiola R, Martin-Garcia C, Carnes J, Campos J, Fernandez-Caldas E. Asthma induced by the inhalation of vapours during the process of boiling rice. Allergy 2003;58(11):1202-3



[ 6 ]

This study’s evidence suggests that rice straw burning in California and asthma hospitalizations were related. (Jacobs 1997 ref.2390 5)

Reference:
Jacobs J, Kreutzer R, Smith D. Rice burning and asthma hospitalizations, Butte County, California, 1983-1992. Environ Health Perspect 1997;105(9):980-5



[ 7 ]

Study findings suggest increased asthma prevalence among California rice farmers/workers. Radiologic findings consistent with dust or fiber exposure were higher compared with those of the general population, although no associations with specific farming activities were identified. (McCurdy 1996 ref.2391 6)

Reference:
McCurdy SA, Ferguson TJ, et al. Respiratory health of California rice farmers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996;153(5):1553-9



[ 8 ]

Allergy to rice may also occur uncommonly in bakers. (Block 1984 ref.7602 3)

Reference:
Block G, Tse KS, Kijek K, Chan H, Chan-Yeung M. Baker's asthma. Studies of the cross-antigenicity between different cereal grains. Clin Allergy 1984;14(2):177-85



[ 9 ]

A distinct clinical syndrome seems to be associated with exposure to rice husk dust. The manifestations of this "rice millers' syndrome" include acute and chronic irritant effects affecting the eyes, skin, and upper respiratory tract; allergic responses such as nasal catarrh, tightness of chest, asthma, and eosinophilia; and radiological opacities in the chest, probably representing early silicosis or extrinsic allergic alveolitis. (Lim 1984 ref.7573 3)

Reference:
Lim HH, Domala Z, Joginder S, Lee SH, Lim CS, Abu Bakar CM. Rice millers' syndrome: a preliminary report. Br J Ind Med 1984;41(4):445-9



[ 10 ]

Baker's asthma. Allergy to rice may also occur uncommonly in bakers. (Block 1984 ref.239 81)

Reference:
Block G, Tse KS, Kijek K, Chan H, ChanYeung M. Baker's asthma: Studies of the cross-antigenicity between different cereal grains. Clin Allergy 1984;14:177-185




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