See also: Rice pollen
Common Names: Rice, Wild Rice, Rice flour;
All Rice grown in the United States and most of that cultivated in other countries is of the species Oryza sativa L. Some 20 to 25 species of Oryza are known. The species O. glaberrinia Steud. is cultivated in Africa.
Rice is an erect annual grass, up to 1.2m tall, producing tiny oblong grains (28,000 to 44,000 per kg, depending on the variety). Native to the tropics and subtropics of Southeast Asia (where it was cultivated since at least 5000 B.C.), Rice is now grown in many localities throughout the world with favorable climatic conditions. More than 90% of the world Rice production is in Asia, China and India being the largest producers.
Rice is a staple for almost half the world's population. The 8000-plus varieties of Rice are grown in two ways. Aquatic Rice (paddy-grown) is cultivated in flooded fields. The lower-yielding, lower-quality hill-grown Rice can be grown on almost any tropical or subtropical terrain. Rice is also classified by size and shape, as long-, medium- or short-grain, and by colour, as White (with the husk, bran and germ removed) or Brown (with only the inedible husk removed). Many methods of milling, polishing, parboiling, etc., are employed in different cultures, resulting in many different forms and nutrient values of the final product.
Rice is classified according to the processing it receives: paddy rice, brown (husked/whole) rice, regular milled white rice, par-boiled, instant/pre-cooked rice, jasmine, wild rice, basmati, popped, and rice semolina, aka rice flour
Rice is used in a great variety of dishes, often as a base for meat or vegetables. Specialised ethnic dishes include Italian risotto and Japanese sushi.
Cereal; hard, starchy kernel is the part we eat; this surrounded - in plant form - by a series of bran coats (lots of vitamins and minerals), and a rough outer, inedible hull. Rice that is rich in starch is also used extensively as breakfast foods - as puffed Rice, flakes, or Rice crispies. Starchy types of Rice are also used in pastries, soups, and starch pastes; glutinous types, containing a sugary material instead of starch, are used in the Orient in candies and for other special purposes. Rice is important in the manufacture of alcoholic beverages. Rice flour, a product of final milling, is used in various mixes.
Rice is a good source of carbohydrate; brown rice provides the same energy as white, but contains more vitamins and minerals. Rice bran, the grain's outer layer, is high in soluble fibre and is effective in lowering cholesterol. Enriched or converted Rice contains calcium, iron and many B-complex vitamins, with Brown Rice being slightly richer in all the nutrients.
All parts of the plant, and even the water from soaking or cooking Rice, and the lye from charred stems, figure in folk medicine, in a great variety of uses. B-vitamin-rich unpolished Rice is a preventative and treatment of beriberi.
Talc-coated Rice (clearly labelled as such) is available only in a few markets, usually those specialising in South American foods. It must be thoroughly rinsed before cooking, as the talc can be contaminated with asbestos.
See under Environment. Rice hulls (bran) and straw used for animal fodder, and the latter can be made into fabric. Rice hulls are used for fuel, insulation, and in certain manufacturing processes such as the production of purified alpha cellulose and furfural. Rice straw is used as roofing and packing material, feed, fertiliser, and fuel.
Generally regarded as a weak allergen and eaten as part of a hypoallergenic diet.
Hypoallergenic rice has been produced by enzymatic means (Ikezawa 1992 ref.1371 5) (Adashi 1995 ref.2516 6).
Ory s 1
RAG 17, a 16 kDa protein, a member of the alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor family. (Izumi 1999 ref.6683 1) (Adachi 1993 ref.434 80)
A chitinase has been isolated from rice. Rice chitinase accumulate to a high level in roots, but only low levels are found in stem and leaf tissue. (Zhu 1991 ref.7282 5) (The allergenicity of this chitinase was not evaluated. Ed.)
Allergic components are albumins with molecular weights between 14 and 16 kD (Adachi 1993 ref.434 80) (Nakamura 1996 ref.789 34) The protein is heat stable and resists proteolysis.
A 16-kilodalton rice protein is one of the major allergens, and responsible for cross-allergenicity between cereal grains in the Poaceae family. (Urisu 1991 ref.5634 1) A 19-kDa globulin protein has been isolated. (Park 2000 ref.3876 3)
In rice allergy, proteins with molecular masses of 14-16, 26, 33, and 56 kDa have been demonstrated to be potentially allergenic. The 33-kDa allergen was identified to be a novel type of plant glyoxalase I that is expressed in various plant tissues, including maturing seeds. (Usui 2001 ref.6682 1)
IGE AND IMMUNE:
See also: Rice pollen
Allergic reactions are common in communities where rice is consumed as a staple food, but is uncommon in westernized societies although the prevalence is increasing.
Rhinoconjunctivitis. Asthma. Contact urticaria, atopic dermatitis and dermatitis. Abdominal cramping, pain, nausea and vomiting. Angioedema. Dyspnoea. Gastrointestinal and nasal symptoms.
A 43-year-old patient with rice-induced severe bronchial asthma was admitted to hospital. Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-radioallergosorbent test (RAST) for rice was positive. (Arai 1998 ref.1276 3)
An adult case of rice-induced asthma with aspirin idiosyncrasy. (Owan 1995 ref.724 23)
Rhinoconjunctivitis-asthma and contact urticaria from handling rice and other cereals in a housewife. She tolerated cooked cereals. Both skin prick tests with a rice extract and a rub test with raw rice gave positive results. The challenge test with raw rice resulted in immediate and late clinical and spirometric responses. (Lezaun 1994 ref.1317 9)
Anaphalaxis and anaphalactoid reactions. (Borchers 1992 ref.554 62) (Golbert 1969 ref.286 57) Anaphylaxis induced by exercise and related to multiple food intake. (Caffarelli 1997 ref.617 71)
Pruritis. Flushing. Quincke's oedema. (Hoogenband 1983 ref.556 23)
Food-dependant exercise-induced anaphylaxis. (Hanakawa 1998 ref.6562 5)
High frequency (50%) of food hypersensitivity in patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. (Ortega 1997 ref.1615 4)
Raw rice is more allergenic than cooked. In Japan, rice has been shown to aggravate atopic dermatitis through IgE mechanisms. (Shibasaki 1979 ref.433 90)
No evidence of sensitization to topical oat and rice colloidal grain suspensions used for eczema in normal and atopic children in the group studied (Pigatto 1997 ref.2146 7)
This studys results suggest that ocular-type atopic dermatitis (AD) belongs to the most severe end of the spectrum of AD, and that rice and wheat may contribute to the pathogenesis of severe AD, resulting in ocular complications. (Uchio 1998 ref.2337 6)
In 34 children with atopic dermatitis, 33 were SPT positive with wheat and 18 with oats. Positive RAST to wheat and oats could be detected in 32 and 30 samples respectively. SPT with rice, corn, millet or buckwheat was positive in 16/34 patients. (Varjonen 1995 ref.1295 4)
Contact urticaria. (Sasai 1995 ref.7565 3) Contact urticaria from raw rice in a 17-year-old female presenting with acute erythema of the hands, oedema of the eyelids, dyspnoea and cough. Symptoms occurred after throwing raw rice during a wedding, although she was able to ingest cooked rice. The authors suggest that the adverse respiratory and skin reactions were as a result of the rice dust. (di Lernia 1992 ref.7568 3)
In 184 Costa Rican patients with allergic rhinitis were tested for reaction to Poaceae species. The highest positive Skin prick tests were for Anthoxatum odoratum (83.2%), Panicum maximum (82.1%), Panicum mole (78.3%), Holcus lanatus (77.7%), and SPT were also highly positive for this species used for food, including corn, sorghum, sugar cane and rice (Riggioni 1994 ref.3886 4)
Anaphylaxis to rice by inhalation. (Fiocchi 2003 ref.7244 8)
A 6-month-old girl had been admitted three times due to the sudden onset of respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms, paleness and a reduced level of consciousness. A provocation test revealed an anaphylactic reaction to rice flour. (Klein 2001 ref.7463 1)
A 30-year-old man with atopic dermatitis had had erythema and itching of the hands after washing rice in water, though he had always eaten cooked rice without problems. Urticarial erythema occurred after several minutes. Prick test with water used to wash regular rice was +++. However prick test reaction with water used to wash allergen-reduced rice was +. These results suggest that the allergen responsible for contact urticaria in this patient might be water-soluble, heat-unstable, and not contained in allergen-reduced rice. (Yamakawa 2001 ref.7464 3)
In 200 of 226 patients with atopic dermatitis visiting a Japanese hospital, oral food challenge tests showed that food allergy was involved in 90.5%, and rice allergy affected 2.5%. (Ogura 2001 ref.7301 1)
In 148 Malaysian adults with symptoms of nasal congestion and rhinorrhea and 113 control subjects without rhinitis symptoms, skin prick test evaluation of 11 foods common to the Malaysian diet. 48% of the patients with rhinitis had positive SPT results to foods, compared with 4.4% of control subjects. The most commonly implicated foods were shrimp (48%) and rice (30%), which are common in the Malaysian diet. (Gendeh 2000 ref.7561 1)
In 1006 Japanese patients with typical and atypical lesions of atopic dermatitis analysed statistically by correlating the clinical severity to serum IgE values, rice antigens suggested a strong contribution of rice allergy to the development of severe this condition. 25 patients with severe AD and positive rice-RAST were treated by rice exclusion diet, of which 9 were remarkably responsive, 10 cases moderately responsive and 6 cases unresponsive. The rice-RAST titre decreased most remarkably in the 1st group. The wheat-RAST titre also decreased in the 1st, in spite of taking wheat foods every day, but increased in the 3rd. (Ikezawa 1992 ref.1371 1)
Contact dermatitis from rice leaf. (Nakamura 1983 ref.7628 1)
Infantile food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a severe, cell-mediated gastrointestinal food hypersensitivity typically provoked by cow's milk or soy. This study reports on other foods causing this syndrome: 14 infants with FPIES caused by grains (rice, oat, and barley), vegetables (sweet potato, squash, string beans, peas), or poultry (chicken and turkey) were identified. Symptoms of typical FPIES are delayed (median: 2 hours) and include the onset of vomiting, diarrhea, and lethargy/dehydration. Eleven infants (78%) reacted to >1 food protein, including 7 (50%) that reacted to >1 grain. Nine (64%) of all patients with solid food-FPIES also had cow's milk and/or soy-FPIES. Initial presentation was severe in 79% of the patients, prompting sepsis evaluations (57%) and hospitalization (64%) for dehydration or shock. None of the patients developed FPIES to maternally ingested foods while breastfeeding unless the causal food was fed directly to the infant. (Nowak-Wegrzyn 2003 ref.7791 5)
Study findings suggest increased asthma prevalence among California rice farmers/workers. Radiologic findings consistent with dust or fiber exposure were higher compared with those of the general population, although no associations with specific farming activities were identified. (McCurdy 1996 ref.2391 6)
This studys evidence suggests that rice straw burning in California and asthma hospitalizations were related. (Jacobs 1997 ref.2390 5)
Allergy to rice may also occur uncommonly in bakers. (Block 1984 ref.5537 3)
A distinct clinical syndrome seems to be associated with exposure to rice husk dust. The manifestations of this "rice millers' syndrome" include acute and chronic irritant effects affecting the eyes, skin, and upper respiratory tract; allergic responses such as nasal catarrh, tightness of chest, asthma, and eosinophilia; and radiological opacities in the chest, probably representing early silicosis or extrinsic allergic alveolitis. (Lim 1984 ref.7573 3)
Asthma induced by the inhalation of vapours during the process of boiling rice. (Gonzalez-Mendiola 2003 ref.8654 6)
Food sensitive enteropathy may be caused by milk, the most frequent and best known example, and soy protein, egg, fish, chicken meat, ground rice and probably gluten may also temporarily damage (excluding celiac disease which is permanent) the small intestinal mucosa in infancy. (Walker-Smith 1994 ref.7566 5)
Shock, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea in 4 infants allergic to rice only. Occult blood in stools were positive in all cases; results of all immunologic tests were negative. (Cavataio 1996 ref.708 12)
Rice- and pea-induced food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome, a symptom complex of severe vomiting and diarrhea occurring several hours after the ingestion of particular food proteins in infants. (Sicherer 1998 ref.2389 6)
Biotin deficiency has been observed in an infant fed with amino acid formula and hypoallergenic rice. (Higushi 1996 ref.2453 2)
Information supplied from an abridged section of:
Allergy Advisor - Zing Solutions
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