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  Substance Info: (and synonyms)
Botrytis cinerea / Botrytis Bunch Rot / Gray mold

Background Info:

B. cinerea has a world-wide distribution but occurs mainly in humid, temperate and subtropical regions. B. cinerea is found regularly in the soil, though its proportion of the total fungus population is not high. It can be parasitic on a wide range of plants, causing blight or rot of leaves, flowers and fruits. It is called the grey mould, as it covers the decayed tissues with conidiophores, e.g., grey mould of cabbage or lettuce, tomato. It is especially frequently seen in connection with soft fruits, e.g., strawberries and grapes.

 

Adverse Reactions:

IMMUNE REACTIONS


[ 1 / 6 ]

In this review, we investigate the airborne exposure level and health effect of Botrytis, both at general exposure and in occupational settings. The surveyed papers show that Botrytis is found globally with different spore seasons depending on the region investigated. The levels of Botrytis in the percentage of all fungi have a calculated median of around 1.1% in the different environments, confirming that it is among the less prevalent fungi. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of patients and workers are allergic to Botrytis cinerea, and when B. cinerea was included in extended test panels additional allergic patients were found. Thus, B. cinerea is as important as the more prevalent mould genera Cladosporium and Alternaria and we suggest that it should be included in standard allergic tests panels.

Reference:
Jurgensen CW, Madsen A. Exposure to the airborne mould Botrytis and its health effects. Ann Agric Environ Med 2009 Dec;16(2):183-196



[ 2 / 6 ]

The presented study concerned mycological analysis of buildings in Lodz and evaluation of the role between filamentous fungi contaminated flats and inhabitants health (allergic airway diseases). 49 inhabitants of 20 flats with signs of moulds contamination were examined. Air samples were collected in houses and outdoors. In all inhabitants skin prick tests (SPT) to common allergens and to standardized particular fungal extracts were performed. Moreover, total and serum specific IgE to moulds, rest spirometry were measured in all subjects. Level of moulds contamination in the air of flats was high and in 75% cases exceed accepted limits. The most frequent species isolated from examined rooms were: Penicillium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Acremoniu and Alternaria. The most frequent symptoms reported by examined subjects were rhinitis (N = 29, 59.2%), conjunctivitis (N = 29, 59.2%), chronic cough (N = 24, 49%), dyspnea (N = 15, 30.6%) and skin symptoms (N = 24, 49%). Elevated IgE level was found in 12 subjects (2 4.5%) and in three patients (6.1%) mould specific serum IgE were detected. Nineteen out of all subjects (38.8%) had positive SPT to common allergens (house dust mites, grass and tree pollens). Eight out of these patients (16.3% of the group) were sensitized to moulds (Candida albicans, Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Helminthosporium halodes, Aspergillus). In all cases sensitisation to moulds was accompanied by allergy to other common allergens. No isolated hypersensitivity to moulds was found. Although the frequency of self-reported symptoms was high, the prevalence of atopy and allergic diseases seems to be similar to that found in general population, but that statement must be confirmed by comparison of the control group (Gutarowska 2005 ref.15852 7)

Reference:
Gutarowska B, Wiszniewska M, Walusiak J, Piotrowska M, Palczynski C, Zakowska Z. Exposure to moulds in flats and the prevalence of allergic diseases--preliminary study. Pol J Microbiol. 2005;54 Suppl(0):13-20.



[ 3 / 6 ]

In 100 Thai individuals who were diagnosed with allergic rhinitis by history and clinical presentation who underwent a prick skin test with 30 aeroallergens:TREES: acacia 19%, mango 16%, coconut 12%. GRASSES: bermuda 17%, johnson 21%, timothy 16%, bahia 16% orchard 18%. WEEDS: pigweed 16%, kochia 14%. MOLDS: alternaria 11%, cladosporium 11%, aspergillus 12%, penicillium 16%, helminthosporium 16%, botrytis 15%, rhodotorula 20%, fusarium 26%, curvularia 26%, smut mix 11%, rust 9%. EPIDERMALS: cat 29%, dog 28%, feathers 37%. INDOOR ALLERGENS: house dust 72%, D. pteronyssinus 76%, D. farinae 79%, American cockroach 60%, German cockroach 41%, kapok 30%. Eighty-five percent of patients sensitive to house dust mites were positive to both D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae. (Pumhirun 1997 ref.2256 8)

Reference:
Pumhirun P, Towiwat P, Mahakit P. Aeroallergen sensitivity of Thai patients with allergic rhinitis. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol 1997;15(4):183-5



[ 4 / 6 ]

Thus two cases from Austria of hypersensitivity pneumonitis/allergic alveolitis caused by B. cinerea have been reported in two farm workers working with noble rot grapes. (Popp 1987 ref.25594 7)

Reference:
Popp W, Ritschka L, Zwick H, Rauscher H. "Berry sorter's lung" or wine grower's lung--an exogenous allergic alveolitis caused by Botrytis cinerea spores. [German] Prax Klin Pneumol 1987 May;41(5):165-9.



[ 5 / 6 ]

IgE antibodies against Botrytis are frequent. Kauffman et al. studied the allergenic properties of Botrytis cinerea and found IgE-binding components in both early- and late-phase antigens. (Kauffman 1986 ref.1223 3)

Reference:
Kauffman H, Heide S van der, et al. Antigenic and allergenic properties of Botrytis cinerea XII Eur Acad Allergol Clin Congress 1986;Wo-11:75



[ 6 / 6 ]

Positive skin test reactions have been seen in several mould-sensitive patients, indicating its importance as a mould allergen. In Sweden, a panel of 1250 patients having 'allergy-related' complaints was skin prick tested with B. cinerea and it induced a strong reaction in 50% of the mould-sensitised patients. Of 150 patients tested, 50% were serum specific IgE positive for B. cinerea. (Nilsby 1949 ref.1222 2)

Reference:
Nilsby I. Allergy to moulds in Sweden. Acta Allergol 1949;2:57-90




Non-Immune reactions


[ 1 ]

Immonen et al. (Immonen 2001 ref.25593 7) and Korhonen et al. (Korhonen 2006 ref.25579 8) found that allergy towards B. cinerea is the most prevalent allergy, or is just as prevalent as allergy towards the typically investigated Alternaria, Cladosporium and Aspergillus in young Finnish children newly diagnosed with asthma and schoolchildren suspected of asthma. Of 144 school children with suspected asthma, 1.3% were skin prick test postive for Botrytis cinerea. (Immonen 2001 ref.25593 7) Of 114 Finnish children with newly diagnosed asthma, 2.6% were SPT positive for B. cinerea.(Korhonen 2006 ref.25579 8) This is surprising considering that no airborne B. cinerea was identified at the childrenÂ’s school, and that B. cinerea seems to have a low prevalence in ambient air in Finland. (Immonen 2001 ref.25593 7)

Reference:
Immonen J, Meklin T, Taskinen T, Nevalainen A, Korppi M. Skin-prick test findings in students from moisture- and mould-damaged schools: a 3-year follow-up study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2001 Apr;12(2):87-94.



[ 2 ]

Asthma and occupational asthma. Aureobasidium (Pullularia) spores were recovered in homes of asthmatics, with some correlation to the cabbage harvest as well as to the harvest of strawberries. Fusarium and Botrytis were less frequently associated with the strawberry harvest and were recovered only during the first quarter of the year. Epicoccum in the homes of asthmatics was strongly associated with the strawberry and artichoke harvest. (Sneller 1979 ref.1039 6)

Reference:
Sneller MR, Roby RR, Thurmond LM. Incidence of fungal spores at the homes of allergic patients in an agricultural community. III. Associations with local crops. Ann Allergy 1979;43(6):352-5




Occupational reactions


[ 1 ]

Work-related symptoms to Chrysanthemum pollen in greenhouse workers in the Netherlands were reported in 56.7% of all cases, with the main symptom being rhinitis. Sensitization to Chrysanthemum pollen was found in 20.2% of the employees without one member of the Chrysanthemum family in particular being most prevalent. The prevalence of allergy to B. cinerea in 104 greenhouse workers was 4%. (Groenewoud 2002 ref.6845 8)

Reference:
Groenewoud GC, De Jong NW, Burdorf A, De Groot H, Van Wyk RG. Prevalence of occupational allergy to Chrysanthemum pollen in greenhouses in the Netherlands. Allergy 2002;57(9):835-40



[ 2 ]

Asthma and occupational asthma. Aureobasidium (Pullularia) spores were recovered in homes of asthmatics, with some correlation to the cabbage harvest as well as to the harvest of strawberries. Fusarium and Botrytis were less frequently associated with the strawberry harvest and were recovered only during the first quarter of the year. Epicoccum in the homes of asthmatics was strongly associated with the strawberry and artichoke harvest. (Sneller 1979 ref.1039 6)

Reference:
Sneller MR, Roby RR, Thurmond LM. Incidence of fungal spores at the homes of allergic patients in an agricultural community. III. Associations with local crops. Ann Allergy 1979;43(6):352-5




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Allergy Advisor - Zing Solutions
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