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  Substance Info: (and synonyms)
Acacia tree / Wattle / Port Jackson

Background Info:

Leguminosae.
White sallow / Sydney golden.

Acacia is called wattle in Australia following its use by earlier settlers for building huts of wattlework plastered with mud. Acacia is a large genus, covering more than 1000 species, many with thorns and spines. The trees are small, evergreen and fast-growing. They are planted for ornament but also for stabilising dunes and eroded slopes. Acacias are a characteristic feature of dry regions in India and the African savannah, where they are called umbrella trees because of their shape.

These trees are native to Australia, Africa and North and South America. They have been introduced in Portugal, Spain, France and Italy. A. melanoxylon is grown in large plantations in Australia, East and South Africa and Brazil, where it is harvested for tanning.

Acacia flowers in early spring.

Originally used 4 thousand years ago by Egyptians in paints. Used to retard sugar crystallisation. Thickener for candies, jellies and chewing gum. For mucilage. Gum provides form and shape to tablets. Emulsifier. Stabiliser - used to maintain the foam on beer and soft drinks, and prevents chemical breakdown in food mixtures. Glazing agent. Most readily water-soluble vegetable gum.

Used as a demulcent (A soothing, thick, oily/creamy substance) to relieve pain in inflamed or irritated mucous membranes. Can slightly reduce blood cholesterol

Acacia gum (Gum Arabic / Senegal gum / Sudan gum) (Rf297) is derived from this tree and may result in food allergy reactions. Acacia gum is the odourless, colourless, tasteless dried exudate from the stem of the acacia tree. Acacia bark and wood are pregnant with oils and terpenes and are considered a source for occupational allergens, especially in the tanning industry. Acacia oil is used in the printing industry.

 

Adverse Reactions:

IMMUNE REACTIONS


[ 1 / 5 ]

In 100 Thai individuals who were diagnosed with allergic rhinitis by history and clinical presentation who underwent a prick skin test with 30 aeroallergens:TREES: acacia 19%, mango 16%, coconut 12%. GRASSES: bermuda 17%, johnson 21%, timothy 16%, bahia 16% orchard 18%. WEEDS: pigweed 16%, kochia 14%. MOLDS: alternaria 11%, cladosporium 11%, aspergillus 12%, penicillium 16%, helminthosporium 16%, botrytis 15%, rhodotorula 20%, fusarium 26%, curvularia 26%, smut mix 11%, rust 9%. EPIDERMALS: cat 29%, dog 28%, feathers 37%. INDOOR ALLERGENS: house dust 72%, D. pteronyssinus 76%, D. farinae 79%, American cockroach 60%, German cockroach 41%, kapok 30%. Eighty-five percent of patients sensitive to house dust mites were positive to both D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae. (Pumhirun 1997 ref.2256 8)

Reference:
Pumhirun P, Towiwat P, Mahakit P. Aeroallergen sensitivity of Thai patients with allergic rhinitis. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol 1997;15(4):183-5



[ 2 / 5 ]

Hayfever and asthma occur through exposure to Acacia pollen. Some patients had positive skin tests to alfalfa, red clover, acacia and lime tree pollens though these pollens were almost absent from the counts. (Bousquet 1984 ref.4396 0)

Reference:
Bousquet J, Cour P, Guerin B, Michel FB. Allergy in the Mediterranean area. I. Pollen counts and pollinosis of Montpellier. Clin Allergy 1984;14(3):249-258



[ 3 / 5 ]

Immunoglobulin E (IgE), directed against components of Acacia (wattle) pollen, has been detected by radioallergosorbent tests (RAST) in the sera of some children and adults who develop allergic symptoms in the presence of flowering Acacia trees in Australia. (Howlett 1982 ref.4397 0)

Reference:
Howlett BJ, Hill DJ, Knox RB. Cross-reactivity between Acacia (wattle) and rye grass pollen allergens. Detection of allergens in Acacia (wattle) pollen. Clin Allergy 1982;12(3):259-268



[ 4 / 5 ]

A total of 36 patients with asthma and/or rhinitis were evaluated for the presence of allergy skin sensitivity to Acacia pollen in Brazil (eastern and southern regions). Only four patients showed mild intradermal skin test reactions to Acacia pollen extract (1,000 PNU/ml). Despite being largely distributed in those regions, Acacia pollen is not an important allergen involved in the pathogenesis of respiratory atopy in Brazil. (Geller 1981 ref.4398 7)

Reference:
Geller M, Rosario NA. Skin test sensitivity to Acacia pollen in Brazil. Ann Allergy 1981;47(3):180-181



[ 5 / 5 ]

In warmer regions of North America many newly introduced plants are cultivated widely and others are becoming aggresive naturalized weeds. Levels of allergenicity based on skin test data, numbers of patients having immediate hypersensitivity and localities where airborne pollen grains have been identified : among the most relevant are Acacia, Brassica, Citrus, Ligustrum, Olea and Schinus. (Lewis 1979 ref.12482 8)

Reference:
Lewis WH, Vinay P. North American pollinosis due to insect-pollinated plants. Ann Allergy 1979 May;42(5):309-18.




Non-Immune reactions


[ 1 ]

Oral toxicity is low.

Reference:
Editor Comment Editorial comment, common knowledge, or still to add - -




Occupational reactions


[ 1 ]

Allergic rhinitis and asthma. In wood workers, rhinitis was caused by oak, beech, and pine, while asthma was caused by obeche, chestnut, acacia, and iroko. (De Zotti 1996 ref.3136 2) The Chestnut tree has also been shown to result in occupational asthma in wood workers. (de Zotti 1996 ref.3136 5)

Reference:
de Zotti R, Gubian F Asthma and rhinitis in wooding workers. Allergy Asthma Proc 1996;17(4):199-203



[ 2 ]

Wood worker, animal pelt workers, printers

Acacia bark and wood are pregnant with oils and terpenes and are considered a source for occupational allergens, especially in the tanning industry. Acacia oil is used in the printing industry.

Reference:
Editor Comment Editorial comment, common knowledge, or still to add - -



Background Info:

 

Adverse Reactions:

Background Info:

 

Adverse Reactions:


Information supplied from an abridged section of:
Allergy Advisor - Zing Solutions
http://allergyadvisor.com/index.html

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Allergy Advisor  - Food Additive and Preservative Allergy and Intolerance Database


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