Fungi related to allergies are commonly found in dwelling environments. The predominant fungi Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Wallemia and Rhodotorula live mainly in indoor air, house dust (HD), futons, clothes and contaminated building materials.
Recordings from all parts of the world show that, with a few exceptions, Cladosporium is the most frequently encountered mould in the air (Gravesen). The dry conidia are carried easily though the air and transported even over oceans. The conidia of Cladosporium can be detected in extremely large numbers, e.g., more than 35 000 conidia/m3 were detected over Leiden (Germany). The indoor counts to a large extent reflect the outdoor concentration. Depending on climatic conditions the conidia may begin to appear in the atmosphere in the spring and rise to a peak in either late summer or early fall. Cladosporium is one of the most common colonisers of dying and dead plants and also occurs in various soil types, and on food. This mould is frequently found in uncleaned refrigerators, foodstuffs, on moist window frames, in houses with poor ventilation and straw roofs and situated in low, damp areas. It has been isolated from fuel tanks, face creams, paints and textiles.
Cla h 1 (Aukrust 1979 ref.5398 3) (Sward-Nordmo 1988 ref.5399 6)
Cla h 2, an enolase (Aukrust 1979 ref.5398 3) (Sward-Nordmo 1988 ref.5399 6)
Cla h 3, an aldehyde dehydrogenase
Cla h 4, a ribosomal P2
Cla h 5
Cla h 6, an enolase (Simon-Nobbe 2000 ref.4361 5)
Cla h 12
C. herbarum hydrophobin represents the first component of the cell wall of fungi demonstrated to act as a rare but clinically relevant allergen in vitro and in vivo. It has been calculated to be around 10.5 kDa. The prevalence of sensitization is in the range of 8-9%. (Weichel 2003 ref.7240 8)
IGE AND IMMUNE:
Cladosporium is one of the moulds most widely studied and most often producing positive skin test reactions in allergic individuals. In a study of 1300 asthmatic children from Finland, 7.1% had positive (3+) SPT reactions to Cladosporium, which was the most common mould allergen causing symptoms in that study. (Foucard 1984 ref.1225 4) Phadebas RATS confirmed allergy specialists' diagnosis in 78.8% of the cases studied by Virchow.
Of 981 children on the Isle of Wight, followed for atopy at age 4 years, and skin-prick tested with a battery of allergens, 61 (6%) reacted positively to Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium herbarum. (Tariq 1996 ref.2647 3)
Animal workers, farming, docker, mill workers, gardening - unexpected exposure
Unknown or Nil
Information supplied from an abridged section of:
Allergy Advisor - Zing Solutions
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