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  Substance Info: (and synonyms)
Garlic

Background Info:

Garlic is a small, very pungent onion-like plant. Garlic has been used for millennia, having been mentioned 1550 BC, as flavoring and a medicine, and is now important in most cuisines worldwide. In some parts of the world, their use also has religious connotations.

Allium is a genus of some 500 species belonging to the family Liliaceae. However, only a few of these are important as food plants, notably Onion, Garlic, Chive, Leek, and Rakkyo. Garlic is a cousin to Leeks, Chives, Onions and Shallots. The edible bulb or "head" grows beneath the ground. This bulb is made up of sections called cloves, each encased in its own parchment-like membrane. Today's major Garlic suppliers include the United States (mainly California, Texas and Louisiana), France, Spain, Italy and Mexico. There are several major types of Garlic available, with cloves up to 6cm in diameter. The flavors of different members of Alliums, in addition to being characteristic, are complex, being derived enzymatically from a number of involatile precursors. Fresh Garlic is available year-round.

Garlic grows in cultivated beds, with occasional escapes. Garlic bulbs are eaten as flavoring either raw or cooked. They are usually peeled before use in recipes. Crushing, chopping, pressing or pureeing Garlic releases more of its essential oils and provides a sharper, more assertive flavor than slicing or leaving it whole. Garlic is readily available in forms other than fresh, such as dehydrated flakes or powder. Garlic salt is Garlic powder blended with salt and a moisture-absorbing agent. Garlic extract and Garlic juice are derived from pressed Garlic cloves. One unfortunate side effect of Garlic is that, because its essential oils permeate the lung tissue, it remains with the body long after it has been consumed, affecting breath and even skin odor. The stems, leaves and flowering seed can be eaten raw or cooked, and are rather milder than the bulbs.

Such plants have been used for many centuries for their pungency and flavoring value, for their medicinal properties, and in some parts of the world, their use also has religious connotations. Garlic can reduce nasal congestion, and lower blood pressure and blood cholesterol. (For example, demographic studies suggest that Garlic is responsible for the low incidence of arteriosclerosis in areas of Italy and Spain where consumption of the bulb is heavy.) It has been employed as an antiviral, antibacterial, fungicidal, vermifuge, vasodilator, expectorant, diuretic, antiasthmatic, antispasmodic, febrifuge, stomachic, skin soothing, tonic, and immunostimulant agent. It may, however, induce migraines. Garlic extract inhibits chromosomal breaks due to sodium arsenite (arsenic), a contaminant in ground water. It has been shown that Garlic aids detoxification of chronic lead poisoning. It is also said to have anticancer activity. Recent research has indicated that Garlic reduces glucose metabolism in diabetics.

The growing plant is said to repel insects, rabbits and moles. An extract of the plant can be used as an insect repellent.

Cloves of Garlic are sometimes spread among stored fruit to delay the fruit from rotting. The juice is also used as glue in mending glass and china.

Both Oil and Extract are obtained from Garlic; Both are a yellow liquid with strong odour.

 

Adverse Reactions:

IMMUNE REACTIONS


[ 1 / 23 ]

Five case reports of allergy to onion or to garlic including anaphylaxis to onion. Three females experienced anaphylactic shock and two had an acute diarrhea. The prevalence is estimated 0.38% (out of 1300 cases of anaphylaxis registered). All of them had only this food allergy, leading to suspect that the allergen is restricted to liliaceae. Only 1 were skin prick test positive and three-quarters had no measurable specific IgE. The authors suggest that the poor efficiency of allergy tests to onion is due to a weak amount of alliin lyase, the major allergen, in the allergenic source. (Beaumont 2013 ref.29398 7)

Reference:
Beaumont P, D.A. Moneret-Vautrin, C. Dzviga, J.-L. Grand Anaphylaxie alimentaire à l’oignon et à l’ail : insuffisance des prick-tests et des IgE spécifiques à la source allergénique. À propos de cinq cas / Food anaphylaxis onion and garlic: lack of skin prick tests and specific IgE to allergenic source. 5 cases Rev Fr Allergol 2013;53(5):446-449



[ 2 / 23 ]

Garlic-induced severe anaphylaxis in a nonatopic patient. A 52-year-old man reported 2 anaphylactic episodes that had occurred in the past 10 months, both in association with the ingestion of garlic. The fi rst episode had occurred 8 months before the visit. Approximately 15 minutes after eating mackerel with string beans and a yogurt, cucumber, and garlic sauce, he developed erythematous, pruritic palms and angioedema of the upper lip, followed by dizziness and finally, loss of consciousness. The second episode occurred 40 days prior to the visit while the patient was eating cod with a garlic-based sauce. The symptoms were erythema and pruritus of the palms and angioedema of the upper lip about 30 minutes after ingestion. He tolerated onion, leek, and various types of fish. Specific IgE to onion was 0.75 kU/L and for garlic 0.81 kU/L. Total serum IgE was 56.0 kU/L. The SPTs and prick-to-prick tests with extracts and fresh foods, respectively, proved to be the most reliable methods for diagnosing garlic allergy and locating the culprit allergen (garlic germ induced the greatest wheal reaction). (Vovolis 2010 ref.25436 5)

Reference:
Vovolis V, Kalogiros L, Ivanova D, Koutsostathis N. Garlic-induced severe anaphylaxis in a nonatopic patient. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2010;20(4):356



[ 3 / 23 ]

Case 1: 67-years-old woman with pollen allergy noticed oppressive feeling of chest and back, and heart burn after accidental ingestion of her dental filling and dental treatment. Peripheral blood eosinophils increased to 38.0%. Cedar and cypress specific IgE were positive. Case 2: a 42-years-old-woman with pollen allergy and asthma experienced repeated urticaria, heartburn, diarrhea and peripheral eosinophilia (25%). Specific IgE was positive only for cypress. High infiltrates of eosinophils in the mucosa of alimentary tract resulted in a diagnosis of eosinophilic gastroenteritis in both. In case 1, based on the history and patch-test-positive finding of formalin and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, these were diagnosed as the causative allergens. In case 2, a patch-test-positive finding of garlic and sesame and improvement after removal of the two allergens, led to the conclusion that these two may be causative allergens. The authors conclude that in these two cases, patch test was useful to identify the allergens. (Adachi 2010 ref.24996 5)

Reference:
Adachi A. Two cases of eosinophilic gastroenteritis whose causative allergens are usefully diagnosed by patch test. [Japanese] Arerugi 2010 May;59(5):545-551



[ 4 / 23 ]

A 22-year-old woman with urticaria, dyspnea and bronchial asthma-like attacks after eating curried rice. The symptoms were found to be due to an immediate-type allergy caused by spice antigens contained in curry spices utilizing detailed questioning, skin test and measurement of specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E antibodies. This case was complicated with pollen-food allergy syndrome (PFAS) from melon and latex allergy (LA) to natural rubber latex (NRL) antigen and she had also had atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis and pollinosis. Serum specific IgE antibodies to birch profilin (Bet v 2), latex profilin (Hev b 8), and timothy profilin (Phl p 12) were detected. She also showed positive reactions to several Apiaceae families, fruits and latex antigens in skin prick test. Based on these findings, the authors considered her symptoms to be involved with spice allergy, PFAS and latex-fruit syndrome. Of the individual spices, SPT was positive to cumin, fennel, dill, fenugreek, cayenne, ginger, cardamom, garlic, garam masala, mustard seed, coconut milk, and negative to 13 others tested including curry powder.
(Yagami 2009 ref.24386 3)

Reference:
Yagami A, Nakazawa Y, Suzuki K, Matsunaga K. Curry spice allergy associated with pollen-food allergy syndrome and latex fruit-syndrome. J Dermatol 2009 Jan;36(1):45-9.



[ 5 / 23 ]

Produce-induced contact urticaria and dermatitis: Solanaceae and Alliaceae. A 48-year-old, atopic (eczema and asthma history), female supermarket produce manager presented with a 10-year history of urticaria! lesions affecting, but not limited to, her palms, flexor surfaces of forearms, and antecubital fossae. Initially, the urticarial reactions were localized to her arms and exacerbated by occupational exposure. Later, oral and occupational skin contact would trigger more widespread urticaria affecting the face, neck, and chest, with bronchospasm, gastrointestinal discomfort, and hypotension. These reactions resulted in self-administration of subcutaneous epinephrine. e immediate-type signs and symptoms. She developed disabling anxiety, refusing to leave her home, and consuming a vegetable-free diet. Patch tests were positive for the following, divided by family:
Solanaceae
Tomato
Red bell pepper
Green bell pepper
Serrano pepper
Jalapeno
Pasilla pepper

Alliaccac
Garlic
Yellow onion
Green onion (Chive)
Leek
(Alikhan 2009 ref.23722 0)

Reference:
Alikhan A, Chan HP, Maibach HI. Produce-induced contact urticaria and dermatitis: Solanaceae and Alliaceae. Contact Dermatitis 2009 Mar;60(3):174-176



[ 6 / 23 ]

Immunological contact urticarial and/or protein contact dermatitis. Classically, the protein sources are divided into 4 main groups: group 1: fruits, vegetables, spices, plants, and woods; group 2: animal proteins; group 3: grains and group 4: enzymes. Taking into account the nature of the causal proteins, a wide variety of jobs can be affected. (Amaro 2008 ref.20923 7)

Reference:
Amaro C, Goossens A. Immunological occupational contact urticaria and contact dermatitis from proteins: a review. Contact Dermatitis 2008 Feb;58(2):67-75.



[ 7 / 23 ]

Little is known regarding the natural history of garlic allergy. We present a case of a boy with garlic allergy whose clinical course and garlic specific-IgE pattern are suggestive of resolution of his food allergy. Our one-year old male patient with atopic dermatitis and urticaria with dog contact developed diffuse urticaria, tongue swelling and irritability immediately after ingesting a piece of garlic bread. This episode resolved with diphenhydramine. Similar episodes occurred after ingesting cheese-flavored puffs with "natural flavorings" and bread cut with a knife contaminated with some "seasoning". His total IgE was 53.4 KU/L. Specific IgE was class zero against common aeroallergens and a battery of foods including onion, but class 5 for garlic. He had slightly elevated specific IgE against dog dander and egg. During his third year, he had three further episodes, each after ingesting "a seasoning". Garlic-specific IgE progressively declined from the initial value above to 2.08 KUa/L (age 2), 0.72 (age 3), and 0.37 (age 4). At age four, with no garlic ingestion for the prior year, an open graded garlic challenge was performed. He tolerated two small doses of ground, dry garlic sprinkled in his mouth and then 2 mL of a mixture made from one garlic clove and water. (Kumar 2007 ref.23513 7)

Reference:
Kumar A, Hallett R. Outgrowing Garlic Allergy. ACAAI Annual Scientific Meeting. 2007:Nov, Dallas. Poster 133.



[ 8 / 23 ]

Garlic is used medicinally mainly for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and prevention of arteriosclerosis. Clinical trials have consistently shown that "garlic breath" and body odor are the most common (and well-documented) complaints associated to garlic intake. Case reports have highlighted the possibility that garlic use may cause allergic reactions (allergic contact dermatitis, generalized urticaria, angiedema, pemphigus, anaphylaxis and photoallergy), alteration of platelet function and coagulation (with a possible risk of bleeding), and burns (when fresh garlic is applied on the skin, particularly under occlusive dressings). Consumption of garlic by nursing mothers modifies their infant's behavior during breast-feeding. Finally, garlic may enhance the pharmacological effect of anticoagulants (e. g. warfarin, fluindione) and reduce the efficacy of anti-AIDS drugs (i. e. saquinavir). (Borrelli 2007 ref.22455 5)

Reference:
Borrelli F, Capasso R, Izzo AA. Garlic (Allium sativum L.): adverse effects and drug interactions in humans. Mol Nutr Food Res 2007 Nov;51(11):1386-97.



[ 9 / 23 ]

Allergic contact cheilitis to garlic. (Ekeowa-Anderson 2007 ref.20039 0)

Reference:
Ekeowa-Anderson AL, Shergill B, Goldsmith P. Allergic contact cheilitis to garlic. Contact Dermatitis 2007 Mar;56(3):174-175



[ 10 / 23 ]

This study describes a small population of patients in Chayi County, in the mid-southern region of Taiwan, allergic to garlic. These patients presented several allergic symptoms, such as rhinitis, urticaria, dermatitis, and asthma, and all had lived near garlic fields, worked or played near a garlic store, and eaten garlic over a long period of time. Serum samples were obtained from 15 patients with garlic allergy. The apparent molecular weights of the IgE-binding components ranged from 31 to 60 kDa. A component with a molecular weight of approximate 56 kDa was detected by all 15 sera, and identified as Alliin lyase. Other IgE-binding components of various molecular weights were detected at frequencies of less than 30%, for example, 4 serum samples gave a positive reaction to a 42-kDa component. All 12 patients were positive on intradermal testing with purified garlic alliin lyase, whereas 58% were positive with a lower concentration. (Kao 2004 ref.8943 7)

Reference:
Kao SH, Hsu CH, Su SN, Hor WT, Chang T WH, Chow LP. Identification and immunologic characterization of an allergen, alliin lyase, from garlic (Allium sativum). J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;113(1):161-8



[ 11 / 23 ]

Contact dermatitis, particularly affecting the fingertips, is a recognized presentation of garlic allergy. Diallyl disulphide is the major allergen in garlic and onion. Diallyl disulphide penetrates most commercially available glove types. Silver laminate gloves offered only slightly better protection. (Moyle 2004 ref.22578 0)

Reference:
Moyle M, Frowen K, Nixon R. Use of gloves in protection from diallyl disulphide allergy. Australas J Dermatol 2004 Nov;45(4):223-5.



[ 12 / 23 ]

In the CICBAA data bank which includes 589 cases of food allergies, sensitization to Liliaceae: garlic, onion, chive, was observed in 4.6% of prick-tests in children, 7.7% of prick-tests in adults. An 18 year-old-woman developed urticaria and angiodema three times following meals. A DBPCFC to 1000 mg garlic induced urticaria after 45 minutes. A 33-year-old woman experienced several episodes of angioedema, urticaria and sometimes asthma after the ingestion of various fruits and vegetables. A SBCFC was positive to onion at 500 mg resulting in laryngeal pruritis, rhinorrhoea and cough. (Moneret-Vautrin 2002 ref.5983 1)

Reference:
Moneret-Vautrin DA, Morisset M, Lemerdy P, Croizier A, Kanny G. Food allergy and IgE sensitization caused by spices: CICBAA data (based on 589 cases of food allergy). Allerg Immunol (Paris) 2002;34(4):135-40



[ 13 / 23 ]

A 16 month-old boy with history of cow's milk and white egg allergy, that developed urticaria on the face and neck immediately after contact with fresh garlic. He tolerated cooked garlic. (Pires 2002 ref.6809 2)

Reference:
Pires G, Pargana E, Loureiro V, Almeida MM, Pinto JR. Allergy to garlic. Allergy 2002;57(10):957-8



[ 14 / 23 ]

This study reports on a patient who presented with nasal symptoms when working with spices that included garlic and onion dust. Skin-prick tests were positive for onion, garlic powder and fresh Liliacea. Specific IgE were positive for garlic and onion. IgE immunoblotting showed very strong bands at 14 and 40 kD with garlic extract. Nasal challenge showed an increase in inspiratory nasal resistance which was higher than 100 % of the basal value for both onion extract and garlic. (Jimenez-Timon 2002 ref.7749 3)

Reference:
Jimenez-Timon A, Rodriguez Trabado A, Hernandez Arbeiza FJ, Porcel Carreno S, Rodriguez Martin E, Agustin Herrero J, Cobo Lopez R. Anterior rhinomanometry as a diagnostic test in occupational allergy caused by Liliaceae. [Spanish] Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2002;30(5):295-9



[ 15 / 23 ]

Garlic is well known to cause contact dermatitis and asthma. However, it is a very rare cause of food allergy. This study reports on a 23 year old woman who experienced an anaphylactic reaction after eating young garlic. (Perez-Pimiento 1999 ref.3838 9)

Reference:
Perez-Pimiento AJ, Moneo I, Santaolalla M, de Paz S, Fernandez-Parra B, Dominguez-Lazaro AR. Anaphylactic reaction to young garlic. Allergy 1999;54(6):626-9



[ 16 / 23 ]

The spectrum of garlic-related adverse reactions comprises irritant contact dermatitis, with the rare variant of zosteriform dermatitis; induction of pemphigus, allergic asthma and rhinitis; contact urticaria; protein contact dermatitis; allergic contact dermatitis, including the hematogenic variant; as well as combinations thereof. (Jappe 1999 ref.6830 1)

Reference:
Jappe U, Bonnekoh B, Hausen BM, Gollnick H. Garlic-related dermatoses: case report and review of the literature. Am J Contact Dermat 1999;10(1):37-9



[ 17 / 23 ]

Immediate allergic reactions to garlic ingestion or contact, is uncommon, especially in children. (Asero 1998 ref.2211 0) (Rance 1997 ref.1996 4)

Reference:
Asero R, Mistrello G, Roncarolo D, Antoniotti PL, Falagiani P A case of garlic allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;101(3):427-428



[ 18 / 23 ]

A series of 202 labial food challenges (LFC) performed over two years in 142 children with food allergy suspected from the case history, positive skin prick tests and specific serum IgE assays: 156 LFC were positive; and 46 negative, followed by positive single-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (SBPCFC). The foods provoking reactions were egg white (75 cases), peanut (60 cases), mustard (23 cases), cow's milk (13 cases), cod (8 cases), kiwi fruit, shrimp (4 cases each), chicken, peanut oil (3 cases each), hazel nuts (2 cases), and snails, apple, fennel, garlic, chilli peppers, pepper, and duck (1 case each). LFC positivity was mostly (89.7% of cases) manifested as a labial edema with contiguous urticaria. There were systemic reactions in 4.5% of cases: generalized urticaria, hoarseness and rapid-onset and generalized eczema. The 46 infants with negative LFC results had positive SBPCFC. The reactions were in 34 cases generalized urticaria, 10 cases asthma attacks, 2 cases early and generalized eczema, and in one case general anaphylactic shock. The sensitivity of the LFC was 77%. The LFC was easy to perform with children. Positive results indicate the presence of food allergy, but negative results require further investigations preferably double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC).

Reference:
Rance F, Dutau G. Labial food challenge in children with food allergy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 1997;8(1):41-44



[ 19 / 23 ]

Immediate allergic reactions to garlic ingestion or contact, is uncommon, especially in children. (Asero 1998 ref.2211 0) (Rance 1997 ref.1996 4)

Reference:
Rance F, Dutau G. Labial food challenge in children with food allergy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 1997;8(1):41-44



[ 20 / 23 ]

One of the commonest causes of contact dermatitis of the hands. (Sinha 1977 ref.340 32) (Delaney 1996 ref.2209 3) Nausea. Wheezing. Diallyldisulfide is considered to be the major allergen of garlic oil and can induce irritation and vesication of the skin. Usually a superficial irritation of the skin, which can result in rubefacient and vesication. (editorial comment)

Reference:
Delaney TA, Donnelly AM Garlic dermatitis. Australas J Dermatol 1996;37(2):109-110



[ 21 / 23 ]

Every drug that possesses an active thiol group in its molecule is capable of inducing pemphigus. Some plants, in particular those belonging to the Allium group, contain several active compounds with stable disulfide and thiol groups in their molecule, and could contribute to the induction of pemphigus. (Brenner 1994 ref.2373 3)

Reference:
Brenner S, Wolf R Possible nutritional factors in induced pemphigus. Dermatology 1994;189(4):337-9



[ 22 / 23 ]

One of the commonest causes of contact dermatitis of the hands. (Sinha 1977 ref.340 32) (Delaney 1996 ref.2209 3) Nausea. Wheezing. Diallyldisulfide is considered to be the major allergen of garlic oil and can induce irritation and vesication of the skin. Usually a superficial irritation of the skin, which can result in rubefacient and vesication. (editorial comment)

Reference:
Sinha SM, Pasricha JS, Sharma R, Kandhari KC. Vegetables responsible for contact dermatitis of the hands. Arch Dermatol 1977;113:776-779



[ 23 / 23 ]

Garlic food allergy with symptoms of Meniere's disease? (Benes 1966 ref.2198 0)

Reference:
Benes J, Prerovsky K, Rehurek L, Kase F Garlic food allergy with symptoms of Meniere's disease [Czech] Cas Lek Cesk 1966;105(31):825-827




Non-Immune reactions


[ 1 ]

Garlic burns due to naturopathic folk remedy-An emphasis on its elimination. (Al-Qattan 2008 ref.22566 0)

Reference:
Al-Qattan MM. Garlic burns due to naturopathic folk remedy-An emphasis on its elimination. Burns 2008 Oct 23. [Epub ahead of print]



[ 2 ]

Garlic is used medicinally mainly for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and prevention of arteriosclerosis. Clinical trials have consistently shown that "garlic breath" and body odor are the most common (and well-documented) complaints associated to garlic intake. Case reports have highlighted the possibility that garlic use may cause allergic reactions (allergic contact dermatitis, generalized urticaria, angiedema, pemphigus, anaphylaxis and photoallergy), alteration of platelet function and coagulation (with a possible risk of bleeding), and burns (when fresh garlic is applied on the skin, particularly under occlusive dressings). Consumption of garlic by nursing mothers modifies their infant's behavior during breast-feeding. Finally, garlic may enhance the pharmacological effect of anticoagulants (e. g. warfarin, fluindione) and reduce the efficacy of anti-AIDS drugs (i. e. saquinavir). (Borrelli 2007 ref.22455 5)

Reference:
Borrelli F, Capasso R, Izzo AA. Garlic (Allium sativum L.): adverse effects and drug interactions in humans. Mol Nutr Food Res 2007 Nov;51(11):1386-97.



[ 3 ]

Other herbal medicines have also been associated with potential increased bleeding including garlic, feverfew, ginger, and ginseng. (Fessenden 2001 ref.9636 4)

Reference:
Fessenden JM, Wittenborn W, Clarke L. Gingko biloba: a case report of herbal medicine and bleeding postoperatively from a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Am Surg 2001;67(1):33-5



[ 4 ]

A patient with a second-degree burn of the forehead, induced by topical application of crushed garlic is reported. (Baruchin 2001 ref.6821 1) (Hviid 2000 ref.6824 2).

Reference:
Baruchin AM, Sagi A, Yoffe B, Ronen M. Garlic burns. Burns 2001;27(7):781-2



[ 5 ]

The following common herbal remedies may increase the risk of bleeding during surgical procedures: feverfew, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, and Asian ginseng. (Pribitkin 2001 ref.4647 9)

Reference:
Pribitkin ED, Boger G. Herbal therapy: what every facial plastic surgeon must know. Arch Facial Plast Surg 2001;3(2):127-32



[ 6 ]

Plausible cases of herb-drug interactions include: bleeding when warfarin is combined with ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), garlic (Allium sativum), dong quai (Angelica sinensis), or danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza). (Fugh-Berman 2000 ref.8380 1)

Reference:
Fugh-Berman A. Herb-drug interactions. Lancet 2000;355(9198):134-8



[ 7 ]

Present in a herbal product, it may potentially increase the risk of bleeding or potentiate the effects of warfarin therapy, through constituents such as coumarin. (Heck 2000 ref.7122 1)

Reference:
Heck AM, DeWitt BA, Lukes AL. Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2000;57(13):1221-7



[ 8 ]

Mustard oil and garlic extract inhibit chromosomal breaks due to sodium arsenite (arsenic), a contaminant in ground water. (Choudhury 1997 ref.2889 2)

Reference:
Choudhury AR, Das T, Sharma A. Mustard oil and garlic extract as inhibitors of sodium arsenite-induced
chromosomal breaks in vivo. Cancer Lett 1997;121(1):45-52



[ 9 ]

Garlic burns may mimick herpes zoster. (Farrel 1996 ref.6881 1)

Reference:
Farrell AM, Staughton RC. Garlic burns mimicking herpes zoster. [Letter] Lancet 1996 27;347(9009):1195



[ 10 ]

Garlic ingestion by pregnant women significantly alters the odor of their amniotic fluid. (Mennella 1995 ref.6884 1)

Reference:
Mennella JA, Johnson A, Beauchamp GK. Garlic ingestion by pregnant women alters the odor of amniotic fluid. Chem Senses 1995;20(2):207-9



[ 11 ]

Garlic seems to have anti-microbial and immunostimulating properties; enhances fibrinolytic activity, and exert favorable effects on platelet aggregation and adhesion (Resch 1995 ref.2372 3)

Reference:
Resch KL, Ernst E Garlic (Allium sativum)--a potent medicinal plant [German] Fortschr Med 1995;113(20-21):311-5



[ 12 ]

Infants of mothers who ingested garlic capsules were exposed to garlic volatiles in their others' milk and spent significantly less time breast-feeding compared with those infants whose mothers who did not. Moreover, the latter group of infants spent significantly more time attached to their mothers' breasts during the 4-h test session. (Mennella 1993 ref.6885 1)

Reference:
Mennella JA, Beauchamp GK. The effects of repeated exposure to garlic-flavored milk on the nursling's behavior. Pediatr Res 1993;34(6):805-8



[ 13 ]

Garlic produced dose-dependant diuretic, natriuretic and hypotensive effects in anaesthetized dogs (Pantoja 1991 ref.1440 3)

Reference:
Pantoja CV, Chiang LC, et al. Diuretic, natriuretic and hypotensive effects produced by Allium sativum (garlic) in anaesthetized dogs. J Ethnopharmacol 1991;31(3):325-31



[ 14 ]

A patient who made reproduction antique china dolls complained that wherever she touched the dolls' heads when painting them, black speckles appeared after the subsequent firing. This study showed that the clay was rich in iron, and that the patient's sweat contained volatile sulphides whenever she ate garlic, and that the speckles consisted of iron and sulphur. The patient was shown to be a poor sulphoxidiser and was therefore unlikely to be able to excrete sulphur-containing breakdown products of garlic in her urine. The speckling phenomenon, which is not uncommon in 19th-century china dolls, is an example of an occupational hazard where the risk is to the product rather than the patient. (Harris 1986 ref.6647 1)

Reference:
Harris CM, Mitchell SC, Waring RH, Hendry GL. The case of the black-speckled dolls: an occupational hazard of unusual sulphur metabolism. Lancet 1986;1(8479):492-3



[ 15 ]

Garlic-sensitive patients showed positive tests to diallyldisulfide, allylpropyldisulfide, allylmercaptan and allicin, all present in garlic. (Papageorgiou 1983 ref.1447 3)

Reference:
Papageorgiou C, Corbet JP, Menezes-Brandao F, Pecegueiro M, Benezra C. Allergic contact dermatitis to garlic (Allium sativum L.). Identification of the allergens. Arch Dermatol Res 1983;275(4):229-34




Occupational reactions


[ 1 ]

This study demonstrated IgE reactivity to multiple spice allergens in workers exposed to high levels of inhalable spice dust. Processed garlic and onion powder demonstrated stronger IgE reactivity than the raw plant. Atopy and polysensitization to various plant profilins, suggesting pollen-food syndrome, represent additional risk factors for sensitizer-induced work-related asthma in spice mill workers.Immunoblotting demonstrated a 50-kDa cross-reactive allergen in garlic and onion, and allergens of approximately 40 and 52 kDa in chili pepper. (van der Walt 2010 ref.24644 7)

Reference:
van der Walt A, Lopata AL, Nieuwenhuizen NE, Jeebhay MF. Work-Related Allergy and Asthma in Spice Mill Workers - The Impact of Processing Dried Spices on IgE Reactivity Patterns. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2010 Feb 12;152(3):271-278



[ 2 ]

601 Italian catering students at the beginning and after 3 and 5 years of their course were evaluated. The incidence of reported symptoms of allergy was higher in fifth year than in first one. A rise in positive reactions between the two groups of students to Balsam Perù, Nickel, Fragrance mix and Garlic was documented. A higher incidence of positive patch reactions occurred in females. However, positive reactions to Garlic was higher in males. About two thirds of the subjects positive to garlic were a sensitisation to diallyl disulphide. The rising of positive patch test reactions to Garlic and Balsam Perù should be caused by the contact with cooking spices. (Montalti 2007 ref.22569 7)

Reference:
Montalti M, Lucadei P, Fioriti M, Luchetti E, Sanchez MA, Filippousi M, Cupelli V, Arcangeli G. Work related sensitization risk in hotel school students, the role of garlic. [Italian] G Ital Med Lav Ergon 2007 Jul-Sep;29(3 Suppl):855-7.



[ 3 ]

Allergic contact dermatitis to garlic in chefs making curry. (Hubbard 2005 ref.12589 2)

Reference:
Hubbard VG, Goldsmith P. Garlic-fingered chefs. Contact Dermatitis 2005 Mar;52(3):3-166



[ 4 ]

Occupational airborne allergic contact dermatitis from garlic with concurrent Type I allergy. (Bassioukas 2004 ref.22570 7)

Reference:
Bassioukas K, Orton D, Cerio R. Occupational airborne allergic contact dermatitis from garlic with concurrent Type I allergy. Contact Dermatitis 2004 Jan;50(1):39-41.



[ 5 ]

Occupational allergic contact dermatitis. (Hughes 2002 ref.6816 0)

Reference:
Hughes TM, Varma S, Stone NM. Occupational contact dermatitis from a garlic and herb mixture. Contact Dermatitis 2002;47(1):48



[ 6 ]

12 patients with rhinoconjunctivitis and/or asthma who were exposed to garlic dust as harvesters, in storage facilities, or in spice factories. Over half of these patients had immediate response (rhinitis, asthma, or both) to bronchial challenge with garlic. (Anibarro 1997 ref.1837 3)

Reference:
Anibarro B, Fontela JL, De-La-Hoz F. Occupational asthma induced by garlic dust. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;100(6 Pt 1):734-8



[ 7 ]

Occupational asthma caused by aromatic herbs. The diagnosis was confirmed by several inhalation challenges in the laboratory. Although immediate skin reactivity was demonstrated to the herbs the subject reacted to by inhalation, RAST showed that garlic was the most potent allergen by weight, the other herbs showing less reactivity. (Lemiere 1996 ref.1409 2)

Reference:
Lemiere C, Cartier A, Lehrer SB, Malo JL. Occupational asthma caused by aromatic herbs. Allergy 1996;51(9):647-9



[ 8 ]

Of 1000 patients were investigated for occupational skin disease, 5 had hand (or finger) occupational allergic contact dermatitis from spices. The causative spices were: garlic, cinnamon, ginger, allspice and clove. (Kanerva 1996 ref.787 43)

Reference:
Kanerva L, Estlander T, Jolanki R. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from spices. Contact Dermatitis 1996;35(3):157-62



[ 9 ]

Occupational asthma and rhinitis have been reported, which may have an onset long after working with the substance. (Seuri 1993 ref.636 21) (Lemiere 1996 ref.1409 6)

Reference:
Seuri M, Taivanen A, Ruoppi P, Tukiainen H. Three cases of occupational asthma and rhinitis caused by garlic. Clin Exp Allergy 1993;23:1011-1014



[ 10 ]

Occupational asthma and rhinitis have been reported, which may have an onset long after working with the substance. (Seuri 1993 ref.636 21) (Lemiere 1996 ref.1409 6)

Reference:
Seuri M, Taivanen A, Ruoppi P, Tukiainen H. Three cases of occupational asthma and rhinitis caused by garlic. Clin Exp Allergy 1993;23:1011-1014



[ 11 ]

Contact dermatitis due to garlic is usually due to handling of garlic for cooking. Among the Chinese, garlic is also used as a form of topical medicament. (Lee 1991 ref.6887 2)

Reference:
Lee TY, Lam TH. Contact dermatitis due to topical treatment with garlic in Hong Kong. Contact Dermatitis 1991;24(3):193-6



[ 12 ]

One of the most frequent causes of fingertip dermatitis in caterers. Reactions may be immediate or delayed. (Campolmi 1982 ref.3496 8)

Reference:
Campolmi P, Lombardi P, Lotti T, Sertoli A Immediate and delayed sensitization to garlic. Contact Dermatitis 1982;8:352-353



[ 13 ]

Occupational asthma from inhalation of garlic fumes or dust. (Falleroni 1981 ref.2197 2) (Zuskin 1988 ref.57 549)

Reference:
Falleroni AE, Zeiss CR, Levitz D. Occupational asthma secondary to inhalation of garlic dust. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1981;68:156-60



[ 14 ]

The preparation of food in restaurant kitchens carries a high risk of occupational dermatoses. Analysis of 33 cases revealed four different etiological types. Simple irritant dermatitis was rare (2 cases), plain contact dermatitis was more common (6 cases). The major type IV allergens incriminated were metals, onion and garlic. The major proteinaceous allergens indicated by history and test results were fish and shellfish. Scratch tests were postive to, inter alia, cod, plaice, herring, eel, cheese, cat dander, mackerel, lobster, pork. Patch tests were positive to garlic, carrot, plaice, cress, and curry, among other. Specific IgE to a mixed extract of cod, herring, perch and pike, were positive in 4 patients. (Hjorth 1976 ref.400 37)

Reference:
Hjorth N, Roed-Petersen J. Occupational protein contact dermatitis in food handlers. Contact Dermatitis 1976;2:28-42



Background Info:

 

Adverse Reactions:

Background Info:

 

Adverse Reactions:


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Allergy Advisor  - Food Additive and Preservative Allergy and Intolerance Database


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