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  Substance Info: (and synonyms)
Jackfruit

Background Info:

The Jackfruit is a tropical fruit which belongs to the Moraceae family (Mulberry) and is cultivated at low elevations throughout Southeast Asia. It is grown to a limited extent in Queensland, Mauritius, the Pacific Islands, Brazil and Surinam. In Africa, it is often planted in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. The genus Artocarpus contains A. altilis (Breadfruit) and A. heterophyllus (Jackfruit).

This huge relative of the Breadfruit can weigh up to 40-50 kg. It is spiny and oval or oblong-shaped.

b. Environment
The tree is cultivated in some places and wild in others. The fruit is an excellent example of a food prized in some areas of the world and allowed to go to waste in others. Jack fruit is little used in the West (and tends to be available only in canned form), because of the copious latex and the foul odor of the raw fruit. This large fruit is eaten raw, boiled or fried; its seeds are roasted like chestnuts. It may be made into ice cream, chutney, jam, liquor, pulp, custard, jelly, nectar, powder or concentrate, paste, "leather" or papad, or even a potato-like chip. They may also be pickled, canned or frozen. They have also been successfully canned in brine, in curry, and, like baked beans, in tomato sauce. They are often included in curried dishes. Roasted, dried seeds are ground to make a flour, which is blended with wheat flour for baking. Tender Jack fruit leaves and young male flower clusters may be cooked and served as vegetables. In India, the leaves are used as food wrappers in cooking, and they are also fastened together for use as plates.

The inedible portions of the fruit yield jelly, pectin and a syrup used for tobacco curing. In some areas, the fruit and the leaves are fed to cattle. The latex serves as birdlime, and household cement and caulk. The mahogany-like wood has a variety of uses. The sawdust yields a rich yellow dye commonly used for dyeing silk and cotton. The bark is occasionally made into cordage or cloth.

The Chinese consider Jack fruit pulp and seeds tonic and cooling, and recommend them as a hangover cure. The seed and leaves may be used as a herbal remedy. The dried latex yields artostenone, convertible to artosterone, a compound with marked androgenic action. Mixed with vinegar, the latex promotes healing of abscesses, snakebite and glandular swellings. The root is a remedy for skin diseases and asthma. An extract of the root is taken in cases of fever and diarrhea. The bark and leaves are made into poultices. The wood has a sedative property; its pith is said to produce abortion.

T-antigen are expressed in more than 85% of human carcinomas. The seeds of Jackfruit contain two lectins, jacalin and artocarpin. Jacalin, a 66 kDa protein, is one of the very few proteins which are known to bind T-antigen and thus has great potential diagnostic value. Jacalin is not directed exclusively against the T-antigen disaccharide, lactose and galactose, but also against mannose and oligomannosides.

The results of a study suggest that lectins from both species of Artocarpus (Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) and Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit)) are very similar. (Pineau 1990 ref.1462 4)

Jack fruit extract significantly lowered the fasting blood glucose level and markedly improved glucose tolerance in Sprague-Dawley rats, the maximum effect was not observed even at +5 hr. The hypoglycaemic activity was better than that of tolbutamide. (Fernando 1990 ref.7231 1) The significance of this finding for humans has not been evaluated yet.

 

Adverse Reactions:

IMMUNE REACTIONS


[ 1 / 3 ]

Anaphylaxis. (Techapornroong 2010 ref.28286 7)

Reference:
Techapornroong M, Akrawinthawong K, Cheungpasitporn W, Ruxrungtham K. Anaphylaxis: a ten years inpatient retrospective study. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol 2010 Dec;28(4):262-9.



[ 2 / 3 ]

Two Jackfruit allergic patients are described. Both patients claimed they had never eaten jackfruit before. A 31-year-old man with a history of hay fever in the Birch pollen season increasingly reported episodes of OA symptoms after eating Apple, Hazelnut or Peanut. He developed oral allergy symptoms within 5 min after eating a very small piece of fresh Jackfruit. Within 10 min that had progressed to hoarseness, swelling of the throat and dyspnoea. A 27-year-old female with hay fever in the Birch and grass pollen season reported increased incidence of oral allergy-like symptoms after eating Apple, Hazelnut and Peanut. She experienced oral allergy symptoms and abdominal cramps within 5 min after eating a small piece of fresh Jackfruit. Double-blind placebo controlled challenges confirmed the diagnosis in both patients. SPT was positive and specific IgE to jackfruit was 5.9 and 0.8 IU/ml, respectively. The Bet v 1-related nature of this allergen in jackfruit was demonstrated by RAST and immunoblot inhibition. To assess whether jackfruit allergy might be common in patients with combined birchpollen-fruit allergy, five such patients underwent an OC with jackfruit. All five had OA-like symptoms. The study concludes that Jackfruit allergy can be added to the list of birchpollen-related food allergies. Increased consumption of this fruit will result in a rise in allergic reactions. (Bolhaar 2004 ref.9957 3)

Reference:
Bolhaar ST, Ree R, Bruijnzeel-Koomen CA, Knulst AC, Zuidmeer L. Allergy to jackfruit: a novel example of Bet v 1-related food allergy. Allergy 2004;59(11):1187-92.



[ 3 / 3 ]

A 30-year-old man from the Philippines with pollen allergy (Birch, Grass, Mugwort pollen) developed symptoms of oral allergy syndrome (OAS) after eating raw Apple, raw Peach, raw Celery, and Jack fruit. Despite the patient's multiple sensitisation in skin prick tests and in the Pharmacia CAP System to Birch, Grass and Mugwort pollen, related fruits and vegetables, and Jack fruit, in RAST-inhibition studies neither rBet v 1 nor rBet v 2 (profilin), the well-known cross-reacting allergenic components in OAS, could inhibit the specific IgE response to Jack fruit. Whether the reaction to Jack fruit is specific or whether other pollen-related cross-reacting allergenic components exist could not be elucidated, and the authors suggested that this should be further investigated (Wuthrich 1997 ref.633 43)

Reference:
W├╝thrich B, Borga A, Yman L. Oral allergy syndrome to a jackfruit (Artocarpus integrifolia). Allergy 1997;52(4):428-31




Non-Immune reactions


[ 1 ]

The ripe fruit is somewhat laxative; if eaten in excess it will cause diarrhea. Raw Jack fruit seeds are indigestible due to the presence of a powerful trypsin inhibitor. This element is destroyed by boiling or baking.

Reference:
Editor Comment Editorial comment, common knowledge, or still to add - -




OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE


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