Lentils are annuals with flattened edible seeds just a few millimetres in diameter. Lentils were cultivated by the Persians and Egyptians from 2500 BC. Lentils are now cultivated in most warm and subtropical regions of the world. Popular in parts of Europe and a staple throughout much of the Middle East and India, this tiny, lens-shaped, high-protein pulse, said to be the most nutritious of the pulses, has long been used as a meat substitute.
Lentils are usually dried for storage, transport and sale. They may be used in soups, salads and casseroles, and as dahl, and ground into cereal flour for enriching other flours or infant food. Lentils need to be boiled for first 15 minutes to destroy harmful toxins found in the skin.
The young seedpods can be eaten raw or cooked like Green beans. Lentils are more digestible than many legumes. They are high in protein (but low in fat) and have a fair amount of minerals and vitamins.
The seeds are mucilaginous and laxative. They are considered helpful in the treatment of a variety of intestinal afflictions. Made into a paste, they are used as a cleansing application for indolent ulcers.
If Lentils are to be eaten whole, they must be boiled an extra 15 minutes to destroy harmful toxins found in the skins.
See also Legumes.
Len c 1 - 12 to 16 kDa, corresponding to gamma-vicilin subunits
Len c 2 - 66 kDa, correspond to seed-specific biotinylated protein
These two allergens were isolated from boiled lentils. Heat treatment of lentils resulted in drastic changes in the electrophoretic pattern, a strong increase of low-molecular-weight bands of 12 to 16 kd and a decrease or disappearance of bands in the 25 to 45 kd range. Len c 1 was recognized by 68% of the individual sera tested. Len c 2 reacted with 41% of the individual sera. (Sanchez-Monge 2000 ref.3996 6)
This study suggests that lentil extracts for the diagnosis of lentil hypersensitivity should be heated, since boiled extracts, used at a concentration of 0.5 or 5 mg/mL, best identify clinically sensitive individuals. (Marinez 2001 ref.4229 6)
The heating process caused a significant decrease in specific IgE binding. However, IgE-inhibition studies showed that the boiled lentil extract had a greater inhibitory capacity than the crude extract. Immunoblots revealed no important differences in IgE-binding patterns between the two extracts. Multiple allergens were detected in a wide range of molecular masses. Boiled lentil extracts maintain strong allergenicity. Patients who have developed tolerance of lentil ingestion have lower specific IgE levels than symptomatic patients. (Ibanez 1999 ref.7340 1)
IGE AND IMMUNE:
Allergic reactions. Asthma. Cough. Rhinitis. Dyspnoea. Vomiting. (Marinez 2001 ref.4229 6)
Ranked 4th as a cause of hypersensitivity reactions in Spanish children, and 5th in India. Antigens are heat-stable. Lentils seem to be the most common legume implicated in pediatric allergic patients in the Mediterranean area. In this study, lentil allergic children had urticaria and OAS as the most frequent symptoms. (Sanchez-Monge 2000 ref.3996 6) In a Spanish study, 10.1% of 355 pediatric patients with food allergy had a convincing history of allergy to lentils. (Crespo 1995 ref.1304 2)
In a Spanish study, in 20 of 22 subjects who experienced allergy symptoms following exposure to lentils, the most frequent symptoms were oropharyngeal symptoms (40%) and acute urticaria (30%); 3 patients also reported symptoms when they were exposed to steam from cooked lentils. Onset of sensitisation occurred less than 4 years of age and 9 patients had allergic reactions to other legumes: chick peas (6 patients), peas (2 patients), and green beans (1 patient). (Pascual 1999 ref.7341 3)
Urticaria, angioedema, abdominal symptoms and rhinoconjunctivitis and/or asthma following ingestion or inhalation of vapours from cooked legumes (lentil, bean or chick-pea). Lentil was found to induce the most severe reactions. (Carrillo 1986 ref.2349 6)
An 8-year-old girl suffered four episodes of anaphylaxis related to lentils between the ages of 3 and 7 years. The first three involved ingestion of cooked lentils, and each time smaller amounts induced symptoms. The fourth episode occurred with inhalation exposure to cooking lentil soup. Skin and serum specific IgE to lentil was confirmed. (Kalogeromitros 1996 ref.824 42)
We report the case of a 20-year-old man who experienced asthmatic attacks when exposed to the steam from cooking either chick pea or lentil. Type I hypersensitivity to the antigens in these legumes was demonstrated by means of immediate skin reactivity, histamine release tests, RAST and RAST inhibition. Specific bronchial challenges with the heated (75 degrees for 30 min) extracts of chick pea and lentil elicited isolated immediate responses. (Martin 1992 ref.543 43)
Fixed food eruption. (Yanguas 1998 ref.2348 4)
More than 15 allergens were detected in this study of food-induced anaphylaxis: egg (11.6%), fish (10.4%), crustaceans (10.4%), milk (6.5%), fruit-latex group (6.5%), peanut and other legumes (soy, peas, lentils, guar gum, etc.), celery, garlic, etc. The food allergen still remained unknown in 25% of cases. (Moneret-Vautrin 1995 ref.2153 6)
Asthma when exposed to vapours from cooking some kinds of legumes (peas, chick-peas, beans, lentils). (Garcia 1995 ref.735 65) (Martin)
Aspiration of leguminous vegetables can cause a granulomatous pneumonitis know as lentil aspiration pneumonia that manifest on radiologic studies with small, poorly defined nodular opacities. (Marom 1998 ref.7342 1)
Lentil pulmonary granulomatosis. (Gill 1974 ref.2530 6)
Six patients (four males, two females aged 3-12 months) were diagnosed with food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) triggered by foods other than cow's milk and soy: chicken in four, turkey in two, peas in one, and lentils in one (five patients reacted to more than one food type). All reactions developed within 2 h of ingestion of the allergenic food. (Levy 2003 ref.8320 1)
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Allergy Advisor - Zing Solutions
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