Pollen from the maize plant, as opposed to the allergen from the Maize grain.
See also Maize/Corn.
The original habitat is obscure; it was probably South America or Mexico. The plant is now grown anywhere in the world where summers are reasonably warm. Corn is one of the most commonly grown foods. It is the staple cereal of the human diet in Central and tropical South America and in many parts of Africa. It is extremely important in livestock rearing, food processing and other industrial activity in developed countries.
The plant is a single-stemmed annual, grown from one seed, though sucker shoots (which may produce seed) rise from the base. The single stalk, terminating in the tassel or staminate flowers, can grow to over 3m at a fast rate. The smooth leaves, usually drooping, usually green, can be over half a metre long.
The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by wind. The female flowers are borne on a receptacle, termed -ear,- which arises at a leaf axil near the mid-point along the stem. Normally 1 to 3 or more such ears develop. The flower organs, and later the grain kernels, in more or less longitudinal rows, are enclosed in several layers of papery tissue, termed husks. Strands of "silk", actually the stigmas from the flowers, emerge from the terminals of the ears and husks at the same time the pollen from the terminal tassels is shed. It is in flower between July and October, and the seeds ripen between September and October. The grains are variable as to size, shape, and colour.
Sweet corn is distinguished from field corn by the high sugar content of the kernels at the early "dough" stage, and by wrinkled, translucent kernels when dry.
Zea m 1, belonging to the Grass Group 1 family (Niederberger 1999 ref.5440 2)
Zea m 4, a Group 4 grass allergen (Niederberger 1999 ref.5440 2)
Zea m 12, a profilin, an Actin-binding protein (Niederberger 1999 ref.5440 2) (Previously Zea m 11)
Zea m 13, a polygalacturonase. (Heiss 1996 ref.2428 3) (Petersen 2001 ref.5424 1)
Zea m Zm13 (Zea13) (Heiss 1996 ref.2428 3)
Zea m PAO from the leaf, an amine oxidase. (Iacovacci 2001 ref.7608 3)
IGE AND IMMUNE:
Asthma, allergic rhinitis and allergic conjunctivitis.
In 184 Costa Rican patients with allergic rhinitis were tested for reaction to Poaceae species. The highest positive Skin prick tests were for Anthoxatum odoratum (83.2%), Panicum maximum (82.1%), Panicum mole (78.3%), Holcus lanatus (77.7%), and SPT were also highly positive for this species used for food, including corn, sorghum, sugar cane and rice. (Riggioni 1994 ref.3886 6)
Oral immunotherapy with grass-maize pollen extract in grass pollen-sensitive seasonal hay fever patients is safe and effective (Van Niekerk)
Thirty-three Navajo patients were seen in a private allergy consultation practice in Flagstaff, Arizona. Skin test and historical data were available from nine atopic patients to evaluate hypersensitivity reactions to oral corn pollen used in the Navajo ceremonials. Six of the nine patients had positive skin test reactions to corn pollen and four of these six reported symptoms from oral corn pollen. The symptoms included various combinations of oral and ear itching, sneezing, cough, and wheezing. (Freeman 1994)
In this study, symptoms suggestive of allergy were found in 90% of the farm workers, compared with only 4% of the control group. However, total IgE levels of the farm workers were not significantly raised and only 40% had positive radio-allergosorbent tests against specific allergens. The authors suggest that mechanisms other than allergy must be considered responsible for the farm workers' symptoms (Van Niekerk).
Unknown or Nil
Information supplied from an abridged section of:
Allergy Advisor - Zing Solutions
© zingsolutions.com 1998